[Tn, Tn.pr, Cn.a] colour (wood, fabric, etc) with a substance that
penetrates the material; dye 给（木材﹑布等）染色或着色:He stained the
wood dark brown.他把木头染成桃红色了.
25/ unassuming new assertiveness
- In 1260, when the church was consecrated, the peasants who shuffled
through those doors must have thought they had died and gone to heaven.
He is too talented not to succeed.
- Surely there’s beauty inside us—but there’s also a beast, a part of
us that we’d like to deny but can’t, a part that gives us a knot in the
stomach instead of a lump in the throat.
A template can be found in climate-change policy.
6/ assembled throng 聚集起来的人工产后出血
背景补充：Chartres Cathedral, also known as theCathedral of Our
Notre-Dame de Chartres), is
France, about 80 kilometres (50 mi) southwest of Paris. The current
cathedral, mostly constructed between 1194 and 1220, is the last of at
least five which have occupied the site since the town became
the 四th century.
Lay down 制定，主张，铺设；放下
shuffle/ ˈʃʌfl; ˋʃʌfl/v
叁.华盛顿 consensus: Washington共同的认识
- When we weren’t busy making progress, we invented more playful things
like music, art, baseball, and bridge.
entitlement[U]~ (to sth) the official right to have or do sth:
This may affect your entitlement to compensation
- We like to think that our erratic behavior is a thing of the past,
that we’ve outgrown the excesses of the Crusades. But nothing could be
further from truth.
Eschew 有意的避开，避开=shun， escape
marbles[pl] collection of marble sculptures; works of art in
marble 安顺石雕刻品; 日照石艺术品.
wield/ wiːld; wild/v[Tn] hold in one’s hand(s) and use (a
weapon, tool, etc) 手持着使用（武器﹑工具等）:wield an axe, a sword, a
tennis racket利用斧头﹑剑﹑网球拍 * (fig比喻)wield authority,
control, power, etc动用权力﹑控制手段﹑权势等.
（The term appeared in a full-page ad in The New York Times on April 6,
2017, the day of U.S. President Donald Trump’s meeting with Chinese
General Secretary Xi Jinping: “Both major players in the region share a
moral obligation to steer away from Thucydides’s Trap”.）
Not all companies lay down written guidelines and rules.
retain a peaceful political environment for economic development；
medieval/ ˏmedɪˈiːvl; US ˏmiːd-, also mɪˈdiːvl; ˏmidɪˋivl/adjof
the Middle Ages, about AD 1十0-1400 中古的, 中世纪的
Dash in 急写
[U] type of hard limestone used, when cut and polished, for building
and sculpture 大理石:a slab of unpolished marble未经打磨的枣庄石板
*These steps are made of marble.那么些台阶是德州石的. *
[attrib作定语]a marble statue, tomb, etc大同石的雕像﹑墓等.
She said the show implicitly promotes obesity and took many called
an insensitive tone.
excursion/ ɪkˈskɜːʃn; US ʒn; ɪkˋskəʒən/n(a) short journey, esp
one made by a group of people together for pleasure 短程旅行; 远足:go
on/make a day excursion to the mountains, ie there and back in one day
A one-size-fits-all public education program1刀切的共用教育计划
8.One-size-fits-all approach: 一刀切；
23/ Chaired a summit of G20 主持G20峰会
同台但有分歧的职务， 个中and 越来越多时候是被but替换。
reciprocatingadj. moving alternately backward and forward
- In fact, Chartres cathedral, like dozens of other cathedrals built
in the same period, is the medieval equivalent of the modern effort to
put a man on the moon.
In international law, the principle of non-intervention includes, but is
not limited to, the prohibition of the threat or use of force against
the territorial integrity or political independence of any state
(Article 2.4 of the Charter).The principle of non-intervention in the
internal affairs of States also signifies that a State should not
intervene in a dictatorial way in the internal affairs of other States.
Other animal can alter their environment at the margins, but only we
can transform our environment so completely that we reshape our destiny.
By lavishing love on this stone and glass, they glorified God and
hoped to be rewarded in the next life. But in the process, they changed
this life, made it more beautiful and more worth living.
Swap lies 扯淡，说空话
12/ a state- of- the- nation speech，国情咨文，政坛工作报告（work
- The glass in the openings would be clear instead of stained if
merchant guilds, members of the nobility, and even the French king
hadn’t contribute money for the windows.
infidel/ ˈɪnfɪdəl; ˋɪnfədl/n(arch derog古, 贬) person with no
belief in a religion, esp in what is considered to be the true religion
陆.Common and differentiated responsibilities: 共同但有分歧的职责
morgue/ mɔːg; mɔrɡ/nbuilding in which dead bodies are kept before
being buried or cremated; mortuary 停屍房; 陈屍所.
Secure the adoption of the yuan as one of the IMF’s reserve
side by sideclosely related or associated
29/ qualm 疑虑，担忧，不安
Step up its multilateral commitment
/ ˈsɔlɪtjuːd; US -tuːd; ˋsɑləˏtud/n[U] (state or quality of) being
alone without companions; solitary state 孤单; 独居:not fond of
2.Thucydides Trap: 修昔底德陷阱
temptingIf something is tempting, it makes you want to do it or have
www.188bet .com，Too weak to handle the job: 太弱，所以不容许胜任该工作/弱的黔驴技穷胜任工作
If I had seen the film, I would have told you about it.
七.Be resistant to 拒绝，对抗；对….有抵抗力的；耐….的
playfulfond of playing; full of fun 爱玩的; 爱游戏的; 有趣的
- The space program would never have gotten off the ground if Wernher
von Braun hadn’t made his discoveries in the field of jet propulsion,
and the arches of Chartres would never have soared if an anonymous
French architect hadn’t devised a system of buttresses to support a
two-ton block of stone 120 feet in the air and keep it there for a
6.Reshape our destiny重塑时局
13/ as its their wont 依照规矩，就如。。。惯常那样
- Even the God-loving people who fashioned the soaring vaults and
delicate windows of Chartres had murder on their minds.
16/ mouthpiece 传声筒，代言人，喉舌
sublime/ səˈblaɪm; səˋblaɪm/adjof the greatest, most admirable
kind; causing awe and reverence 伟大的;华贵的; 令人啧啧表彰的;
令人爱惜的:sublime heroism, beauty,
profile意指保持低调。而最早的法定译本都是hide our capabilities and bide
‘being moderate and cautious, undertaking no leadership, raising no
banner, searching for no expansion, not running after hegemony and being
consistent with the idea of peaceful development’（cf Dai Bingguo,
‘Sincere in Purchasing Peaceful Development’）
expedition/ ˏekspɪˈdɪʃn; ˏɛkspɪˋdɪʃən/n
28/ go it alone 单干，独自过活，独自前行
30/ assume its responsibility 承责
I will convene a white house summit aimed at strengthening these
lifelines of learning.
- That feeling itself – the tightening in the throat, the tingle up
the spine, the tear of pride-is unique to the human animal.
“Thucydides Trap” refers to when a rising power causes fear in an
established power which escalates toward war. Thucydides wrote: “What
made war inevitable was the growth of Athenian power and the fear which
this caused in Sparta.”
12.Get off the ground开始
legion/ ˈliːdʒən; ˋlidʒən/n(a) battle unit of the ancient
Roman army 古亚特兰大军团:Caesar’s legions凯撒军团. (b) special
military unit, esp of volunteers serving in the army of another country
特殊军团; （尤指志愿服务於她国部队中的）外国国籍军团:the French Foreign
22/ revisionist power 创新主义强国
Bent on下决心，倾向于/intend on 意欲
Flesh out 充实，完善，具体化，使有骨血
fall forIf you fall for someone, you are strongly attracted to them
and start loving them.
I have to dash.作者得赶紧走了。
noncombatantsomeone who is not involved in fighting during a war
Speeches made by a country’s Head of State to its legislature;
Selling is still the hardest part of tis business, especially since
local suppliers have so much clout.
- Throughout most of our history, that feeling belonged exclusively to
religion. When most people’s lives were “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish,
and short,” religion was the only thing that made them feel dignified,
special, and proud of being human.
fad/ fæd; fæd/nfashion, interest, preference, enthusiasm, etc that
is not likely to last 流行的风尚﹑爱好﹑狂热等:Will Tom continue to
collect stamps or is it only a passing fad?汤姆还在集邮呢,
I waited until the boss was in good mood before I broached the
subject of my raise.
(a) (arch古) praise (sb/sth) highly; make glorious
称誉或表彰（某人[某事物]）; 使光荣或荣耀:an ancient epic
glorifying the hero’s deeds in battle表扬战斗英豪业绩的西汉史诗.
(b) (Bible圣经) worship (sb) 崇拜:glorify God归荣耀与上帝.
Bent on living a dream, Hall quit his engineering job.
gore1 / gɔː(r); ɡɔr/n[U] (esprhet尤作修辞) (mainly in
descriptions of fighting) thickened blood from a cut or wound
Too good to be true: 太美好，所以不大概是真正/美好的不现实
a city in which communism and democracy had to live side by side
We like to think that our erratic behavior is a thing of the past,
that we’ve outgrown the excesses of the Crusades.
The dish is too delicious not to eat.
shrineany place that is regarded as holy because of its associations
with a special person or event 神圣的地方或场地; 圣地; 圣坛; 圣祠; 神龛
8/ hegemon imposing its will on others 霸权主义强加意志于他国
grant off ：授予
- But there are millions of teenage drivers and thousands of
cloverleaves out there, and the phone rings every day, in homes across
America, and it’s the hospital calling—or the morgue.
we get together in twosto discover love.
We’ve also shown a lot of individual spunk.
Take/respond responsibility, assume liability, bear the blame
toss(a) [Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p, Dn.n, Dn.pr]~ sth (to sb)throw
sth lightly or carelessly or easily 扔; 抛; 掷:He tossed the book down
on the table.他把书扔在桌子上. *toss sth
It’s nothing you can do it alone, it’s sth that required a great deal of
lump1 / lʌmp; lʌmp/nhard or compact mass, usu without a regular
shape 堆, 块, 团（平时无定形）:a lump of clay一团黏土 *a sugar
As one power rises, an already established power gets nervous and gears
up for war, with this devolving into a vicious cycle that eventually
results in war.
machismo/ məˈtʃɪzməu /n[U] (espderog尤作贬义) exaggerated or
aggressive pride in being male （夸大的或盛气凌人的）哥们气概.
19/ bolstered self- assurance 增强自信
1/ reassessing their place in the world
10/ one size fit all 壹刀切，一体适用，万全之计
guild/ gɪld; ɡɪld/n[CGp] society of people with similar
interests and aims, esp one of the associations of craftsmen or
merchants in the Middle Ages 组织; 行会; （尤指中世纪的）基尔特:the
guild of barber-surgeons理发师–内科医务职员同业公会 *the Townswomen’s
At a dash 一呵而就的，一挥而就的
Many of us are spending so much time on our jobs and our extra tasks in
life that we tend to forget how to slow down and reassess what we are
doing and why.
Plot: By the 21st century,
been colonized, and although still very much a research establishment,
it is visited by tourists who can afford the trip. One of its
one of thelunar
named theSea of Thirst, (located within theSinus
filled with an extremely
a fine powder far drier than the contents of a terrestrial desert and
which almost flows like water, instead of the
covers most of the lunar surface.
5.Step up its multilateral commitments: 抓牢多边往来；拉长其大端承诺
megaton/ ˈmegətʌn; ˋmɛɡəˏtʌn/nexplosive force equal to one million
tons of TNT 百万吨级（至极於一百万吨松石绿炸药的威力）: [attrib作定语]a
Low profile: a state of low visibility in which public notice is
- Why do we persist in the same contradictory behavior day after day,
century after century, alternating between Chartres and the Crusades,
between grief and gore, between moonwalks and megatons?
A dash of 少许，一点儿
melt/ melt; mɛlt/v[I, Tn] (cause sth to) become liquid through
heating （使某物）融化:The ice melted when the sun shone on
it.阳光照到冰上, 冰就融化了. *
outgrowleave (sth) behind or grow weary of (sth) as one grows older;
grow out of 年长而不再要（某事物）; 长大而厌倦（某事物）:outgrow bad
habits, childish interests, etc中年老年年而屏弃坏习惯﹑儿时的兴味等
24/ comply with G20’s decisions
If he were to come here, he would tell us about it.
All this is in a relatively small and attractive package.
we’ve invented the wheel, the alphabet, the clock, the reciprocating
machine, the cyclotron, and everything in between.
- Certainly no other creature could conceive and create something of
such sublime beauty, Case closed?
4.Boss others around:
loud bossy sister爱管人的大声堂妹
背景补充：查理 奥古斯塔斯 Lindberghwas an American aviator,
military officer, author, inventor, explorer, and environmental
activist. At age 25 in 1927, he went from obscurity as aU.S. Air
to instantaneous world fame by making hisOrteig
nonstop flight fromLong
This was the first solotransatlantic
and the first non-stop flight between North America and mainland Europe.
3.Be wary of sth: 警惕；谨防，警觉
- But there would have been no stones to support if the wealthier
townspeople hadn’t dug deep into their pockets and come up with the
money needed for construction.
7/ swap rumours
就像是的抒发还有close a deal：达成交易。
一.Go viral: 火了，疯传；疯狂流传，像病毒般扩散
3.How far we human have come in such a short
11/ Send subtle signals– amplified by— fleshed out by
…a rare, highly prized deluxe wine.
beaver/ ˈbiːvə(r); ˋbivɚ/n[C] fur-coated animal with strong
teeth that lives both on land and in water and gnaws down trees to build
5/ admonition 警告，劝诫，忠告
9/ thucydides trap 修昔底德陷阱
(a) organized journey or voyage with a particular aim
（为某指标而集体的陆路或水路的）远行; 探险; 调查:send a party of people
on an expedition派一队人去考查
27/ clout 影响力，敲打，猛击
15/ the term has gone viral.火了，疯传
Nothing could be further from
- And all the money would have been worthless if legions of craftsmen
hadn’t been willing to dedicate their skills and often their lives to
making this not just another building, but a monument to human
- Even Charles Lindbergh had a ground crew.
2/ reappraising their positions
- After the shrines of Christianity were in “safe” hands, many
Crusaders returned home and turned their attention to other things, like
the cathedral at Chartres.
The Washington Consensus refers to a set of broadly free market economic
ideas, supported by prominent economists and international
organizations；Essentially, the Washington consensus advocates, free
trade, floating exchange rates, free markets and macroeconomic
erratic/ ɪˈrætɪk; ɪˋrætɪk/adj(usuderog平常作贬义) irregular or
uneven in movement, quality or behaviour; unreliable
（动作﹑品质或行为）不规则的, 无常的, 不可靠的
5.Not interfering in other countries’ internal affairs: 不干涉他国内政
- Someone referred to us the “superdeluxe model”
The city is too beautiful not to visit.
11.Wrestle with sth与……斗争
3/dash from one policy to the next
=abide by； obey，observe，to stand by照做，遵守
in betweenbetween the two times mentioned:
extensive anti-terrorist operations
- They want a man who will share the housework and feed the baby at
three in the morning, but they live in a society in which few bosses
grant time off to men who want to share parenting.
17/ lay down the law to others
- The impulse that sends a society back to war, despite the knowledge
that children will die and mother will grieve, is the same impulse that
leads you to light up another cigarette or have “one more for road,”
despite the knowledge that it may kill you.
ADJ: ADJ n, n ADJ (BRIT) also de luxe
The third ethical qualm involves the thorny issue of fairness.
propulsion/ prəˈpʌlʃn; prəˋpʌlʃən/n[U] driving (sth) forward or
being driven forward 推进:changes in the fuel used for
propulsion用来发生推进力的燃料之改变 *jet propulsion, ie by means of
jet engines 喷气推进（使用喷气式电动机）.
4/ carapace 龟或蟹的盖子，爱惜壳
level3[Tnesp passive 尤用於被动语态] demolish (a building, etc)
夷平, 摧毁（建筑物等）:a town levelled by an
Too….not to: 太。。。。而必须。。。
If he were free, he would help us. 假使他悠然的话，它会协助大家的。
Cut a dash 摆阔，大出风头，炫耀
- China is a revisionist power, wanting to expand influence within
the system. It is neither a revolutionary power bent on overthrowing
things, nor a usurper, intent on grabbing global control.
2.Scores of musicians/ an army of people很多人
贰.马科斯 a change: 标志着改变
- Some of the workers may well have been veterans of the First Crusade,
an expedition to save the Holy Land from the infidel Muslims that was
part religious frenzy, part military adventure, and part social fad.
A thing of the past:以前的事eg. Telegraph has already become a thing
of the past.
1.Keep a low profile, never take the lead, and make a difference
termite/ ˈtɜːmaɪt; ˋtəmaɪt/nsmall insect, found chiefly in
tropical areas, that is very destructive to timber (popularly
calledwhite ant, but not of the ant family) 白蚁.
Hugemonic discourse 霸权论述，话语霸权
wizardryYou can refer to a very clever achievement or piece of work
as wizardry, especially when you do not understand how it is done.
any rival，lay down the law to others，bolster the rule of law，a
wishker of 一 trn（nudging），advertise a project，lingua franca，assume
frenzy/ ˈfrenzɪ; ˋfrɛnzɪ/n[sing, U] state of extreme excitement;
extreme and wild activity or behaviour分外激动的景象;
万分狂乱的活动或作为:in a frenzy of zeal, enthusiasm, hate,
Common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR), principle of
international environmental law establishing that all states are
responsible for addressing global environmental destruction yet not
equally responsible. The principle balances, on the one hand, the need
for all states to take responsibility for global environmental problems
and, on the other hand, the need to recognize the wide differences in
levels of economic development between states.
Adults should reappraise their priorities about what is important.
The cathedral has been well preserved. The majority of the original
stained glass windows survive intact, while the architecture has seen
only minor changes since the early 13th century. The building’s exterior
is dominated by heavyflying
allowed the architects to increase the window size significantly, while
the west end is dominated by two contrasting spires – a 105-metre
(349 ft) plain pyramid completed around 1160 and a 113-metre (377 ft)
on top of an older tower. Equally notable are the three great façades,
each adorned with hundreds of sculpted figures illustrating key
theological themes and narratives.
hive(a) (also`beehive) box or other container for bees to
live in 蜂箱; 蜂房.
Have qualm about 对。。有质疑，感到愧对
- At places like Chartres, it’s easy—and tempting—to overlook this
other side, the ugly side, of our nature.
(a) [I, Ipr, Ip] walk without lifting the feet completely clear of
the ground 拖着步子走:Walk properly don’t shuffle.精粹走路–脚别蹭地.
*The prisoners shuffled along the corridor and into their
1.The signals are amplified by similar ones further down the system and
fleshed out by controlled discussions in state-owned media.
- Most of them had never been inside anything bigger than a thatched
hut and never seen anything more colorful than a piece of dyed cloth.
26/ template 模板，样板
3.Global rules on trade and finance, it seems, are too important for
Mr.Xi not to defend.
(derog贬) make (sth/sb ordinary or bad) appear better or more noble
than it/he really is 吹捧; 美化:a book which glorifies the horrors of
Friends and neighbors assemble to swap gossip, have drinks and get
their jewelry appraised.
- Even today, the sight of this huge, arched space with those luminous
windows suspended high in the darkness is almost enough to make a
believer of even the most skeptical.
- There are people in Belfast today who will repeat the catechism,
then go toss a bomb into a crowded pub; people who grieve for the
victims of crime, then pay good money to see it reenacted on a movie
6.Model on 以…为模板；以….为榜样，模仿….
If you say that someone or something is dignified, you mean they are
calm, impressive and deserve respect.
Nothing ventured,nothing gained.不入虎穴焉得虎子。
catechism/ ˈkætəkɪzəm; ˋkætəˏkɪzəm/n(a) [U] summary of the
principles of a religion in the form of questions and answers 教义问答.
(b) [C] series of such questions, used for religious instruction
20/ implicitly to disavow its legal victory
- Cops throw drunken drivers in jail while television sells beer as
though it were an American entitlement.
- Bees get together and build hives, termites build mounds, beavers
build dams, and spiders spin webs, but what other animal can change
stone and glass into poetry?
domestic constrains 国内约束/限制
18/ broach 第叁遍发布，初始聊起，首次提议
tingle/ˈtɪŋgl; ˋtɪŋɡl/v(a) [I, Ipr]~ (with sth)have a
slight pricking, stinging or throbbing feeling in the skin
14/ distill 蒸馏，提炼，榨取，
mound/ maund; maʊnd/nmass of piled-up earth; small hill 小丘;
If you don’t comply with these rules, the transaction strategy will
come up with：If you come up with a sum of money, you manage to produce
it when it is needed.
21/ convene a grand summit 召开，着急，开会
Qualm of conscience 良心上的训斥
8.Be ashamed of …对……羞愧
…a piece of technical wizardry.
I have breakfast at 7.30, lunch at 1 o’clock and sometimes a snack in
- The same technological wizardry, individual bravery, and group
effort that put us on the moon have also given us weapons that can blow
our whole planet into permanent winter.
- How could so much beauty and so much brutality exist side by side?
七.Set goals/pursue goals设立指标
vault1 / vɔːlt; vɔlt/narched roof; series of arches forming a
roof 拱券; 拱顶:fan vaulting, ie vaults wherethe arches have ribs,
like a fan 扇形拱券. =>illus at App 一见附录一插图, page viii.
Deluxe goods or services are better in quality and more expensive than
- Beethoven composed the Ninth Symphony in the solitude of deafness,
but scores of musicians are needed to bring it to life.
In my opinion, beauty and the beast are permanent part of the human
condition. People are born with no kindness or brutality. It is the
education that makes people become what they are after growing up.
That’s why education is so important in one’s life. However, people have
lust. They are always unsatisfying with what they already have.
Therefore, wars start and violence persists in our society. Even though
both beauty and the beast are human nature, we can do something to keep
us behaving in the good manner. In summery, we choose to be what we are
and self-control helps human being establish a civilized society.
cloverleafn. an interchange that does not require left-hand
9.Neil Armstrong had to have personal courage to step out on the surface
of the moon, knowing that he might sink into 15 feet of “moondust,” but
he had an army of people to help him there and bring him back.
spunk/ spʌŋk; spʌŋk/n[U] (dated infml旧, 口) courage; spirit
勇气; 胆量; 活力.
marble/ ˈmɑːbl; ˋmɑrbl/n
giving out light; bright 发光的; 光亮的:luminous paint, ie paint that
glows in the dark, used on watches, clocks, etc发光涂料（在暗中可知,
spin/ spɪn; spɪn/
…exclusive fashion de luxe for the businesswoman.
- Some of the workers may well have been veterans of the First
Crusade, an expedition to save the Holy Land from the infidel Muslims
that was part religious frenzy, part military adventure, and part social
Beauty and the Beast
- How could the same hands that carved these stones and stained this
glass have wielded swords and butchered women and children?
五.Medieval equivalent of the modern
Well have been里面包车型客车well万分值得关切，表示程度之高，如He is well into
He was fantastically handsomemI just fell for him right away.
- then they melt for machismo and fall for the strong, silent type.
- They’re for everyone who wrestles with these contradictory drives in
his or her own life.
- On that excursion, begun four years after work in Chartres began,
the Crusaders slaughtered thousands of noncombatants, leveled whole
communities, and finally “saved” the holy city of Jerusalem by
massacring all its inhabitants-men, women, children, Muslims, Jews:
get off the groundv. get started or set in motion, used
- All the money would have been worthless if legions of craftsmen
hadn’t been willing to dedicate their skills and often their lives to
making this not just another building, but a monument to human
unpleasant; disgusting 令人不心满意足的; 令人厌恶的
If you describe a person or their behaviour as brutish, you think that
they are brutal and uncivilised.
9.Fall for ….爱上
- Certainly no other creature could conceive and create something of
such sublime beauty. Case closed? Hardly.
- look back at the earth, suspended like a blue-and-white marble in
worthless ：Something that is worthless is of no real value or use.
- The peasants who gazed for the first time at the stained glass in
the cathedral at Chartres undoubtedly experienced that same feeling-the
most human of emotions-wonder.
nasty/ ˈnɑːstɪ; US ˈnæ-; ˋnæstɪ/adj(-ier,-iest)
[Tn] (of a spider, silkworm, etc) produce (fine silk or silk-like
material) from the body in order to make (a web, cocoon, etc)
（指蜘蛛等）结（网）; （指蚕等）吐丝做（茧）:spiders spinning their
webs结网的蜘蛛 *silkworms spinning cocoons做茧的蚕.