象术语[A-K]A GLOSSA帕杰罗Y OF ELEPHANT TE普拉多MS

正文超过二分一剧情译自以下地点,并对初稿部分内容作校正、补充和加注参考:

境内一贯欠缺1套大象相关词语的术语汇总,相互切磋时也常缺少一个标准,有时依旧未曾相应的翻译。本文是大象爱好者鶽鴞对A
GLOSSA大切诺基Y OF ELEPHANT TESportageMS(Kahl & Santiapillar,
200四)象术语一文的翻译,个中许多翻译可能不准确,欢迎指正。在近期看来,200肆年的那篇作品存在有的标题,如用词不确切、术语不再选用等,译者尽量按原著翻译,不做改正。发出此文,仅供调换。格式难点已尽力。

http://www.greatelephantcensus.com/background—on—conservation/

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1500s—在亚洲人早先时代探索亚洲时,估量北美洲象数量约为2600万。(2600万以此数字也对应现身于1800年,出处象牙贸易史,见参考1)

引文出处:Kahl M P, Santiapillai C. Aglossary of elephant terms[J].
Gajah, 2004, 23: 1-36.

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文本出处:

19世纪末—象牙制的梳子、琴键、梳把、斯诺克等在亚洲吸引购买狂热[1]。

https://www.elephantvoices.org/multimedia-resources/elephant-terms-glossary.html

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Achin(Burmese)胎盘(缅甸语):[also: a-chin] (Gale 1974:157;
Daniel 1998:140) Afterbirth; placenta.

20世纪初—在游猎中猎杀大象被美洲人觉着是非常大的荣誉。

Age-groups年龄构成:[同: cohorts年龄层次] (Lee 19捌7:27玖; Moss
200壹:150-15一)粗糙、不标准的龄级(age-class)分组,部分龄级有臃肿:

1913—美利坚合资国历年费用200吨象牙;北美洲象数量暴跌到约一千万。(在二〇〇9年,中夏族民共和国1遍性进口62吨象牙,但也仅以每年伍吨的多少投入市镇)

Infant乳象or婴象:[0-1岁]全然依靠母乳。还是可以够从母象腹部下方穿过。Can
still passunder mother’s belly.

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Calf幼象or象犊:[0-4岁]借助于哺乳阶段。幼象和大象都以未成年大象的通用词。Stilldependent
on milk. Also a generic term for all immatures.

1950s—大象屠杀激增,测度每日近2四十七头被猎杀;那种激增的面世与数不胜数殖民地区独立有关。

Young
juvenile稚象(若象)or少年象
:[2-5岁]不完全注重哺乳,渐渐退出母乳阶段,一段时间内可在缺少母乳的情状下存活。Stillnursing,
but can survive for some periods without milk.

1973—CITES(濒临灭绝的危险野生动物植物物种国贸公约)于197三年二月13日经过。

Older
juvenile少年象
:[5-10岁]全然断奶,仍濒临母象身边活动;少年雌象初步学着招呼幼小同胞;少年雄象形成游戏群(play-groups)。Weaned,
but still near mother; females start to look afteryounger siblings;
males form
play-groups.少年为断奶到性成熟的经过。对于雌象,性成熟后飞速便可涉足繁殖,少年阶段更加短[或是与Adolescent合并]。

1973—米国《濒临灭绝的危险物种法》(Endangered Species Act,
ESA)通过,于197三年3月二十二日签署。

Immature未达性成熟的小象:[0-10岁]性发育不成熟的等级。Notyet
sexually mature.

1977—北美洲象被列入CITES附录II(由197八年的附录III提高)。商业用途的象牙国贸在CITES幽禁下举办。(欧洲象于1975年被列入CITES附录I)[2]

Adolescent青年象:[10-15岁]性心绪成熟阶段。雄象起首离群,但仍不到场繁殖。Sexuallymature,
but have not yet
reproduced.对于雌性阶段,Adolescent青年雌象的生理和思想均趋于成熟性成熟,插足繁殖。

1978—南美洲象被列入ESA濒临灭绝的危险物种,并对准亚洲象的进口和销售建议“特别法special
rule”。[2]

Sub-adult亚成象:[15-20岁]雄性繁殖情形处于性好奇阶段(interested),但成功率低。这几个年龄阶段的雌性繁殖状态性活跃(sexual-active),。Femalesreproductively
active; males reproductively “interested” but notusually successful. Not
yet
full-grown.雄性处于离群状态或不安静雄象群中的低等级阶层。对于雌象,Sub-adult和Adolescent意义一样。

1979—第叁回泛非大象考查报告大象数量为130万(1977年由Iain
Douglas—哈密尔敦博士为首开始展览)[3]。

Adult成年象:[20-55岁]完全生长。(雄性平生生长)Fullymature. (NB:
males continue to grow throughout life.)

1988—经过10年的证实,预想中象牙交易的平稳管理被验证是截然退步的;十年内大象种群数目缩减了大体上之上[2]。

Old
adult老年象
:[55+岁]生殖活动日趋甘休;臼齿停止更换;接近归西。Reproductionslowing
slightly; losing molars; nearing death.

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Aggregation集群:[又见: social organization社群组成](Moss & Poole
1九8三:31陆,3一七,318; Poole & Moss 1玖八陆:11贰,11肆;
Poole199肆:335)上百头象的聚集行为,有时达到200-500头;恐怕聚集数十二个家门(familyunits)和大度雄象;大规模聚集往往出现在雨季、食品充沛的区域,常伴随繁殖活动的顶峰[又见:繁殖breeding,季节性seasonal]。也见于发生严重猎杀和烦扰事件的族群聚集。[see
also: social organization] (Moss& Poole 1983:316,317,318; Poole & Moss
1989:112,114; Poole 1994:335)Gathering, which can be as large as
200-500; may include dozens of family unitsand a number of mature males;
larger aggregations form mainly during therainy-season in areas where
food is plentiful and usually associated with peakmating activity [see
also: breeding, seasonal]. Also sometimes seen inpopulations that have
been heavily decimated by poaching or other disturbance.

1989—CITES同意将南美洲象列入附录I,澳洲象牙的国贸禁令于1九8陆年3月十十五日见效[2]。

Agonistic
behavior
争胜行为:(伊梅尔mann
& Beer 一九八8:十; Estes
一9玖一:②陆叁,55九)凌犯法行为为[控制/攻击行为)和防卫行为[从属/投降/恐惧行为]统称。Collectiveterm
for aggressive [dominant/offensive] and
defensive[subordinate/submissive/fearful] behavior.

1990s—部分大象种群出现上涨迹象,尤其是东非和部分西部亚洲国家。Kenny亚种群从历史低点的1五千头上升至二〇〇六年的贰仟0余头。

Alidena(Sinhalese)无短牙雌象(僧伽罗语): (Deraniyagala 1955:48;
Jayewardene1994:20,121; Cannon & Davis 1995:38) Female with no tushes.

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Aliya(Sinhalese)短牙象或无牙雄象(或大象通称)(僧伽罗语):[see
also: pussa, mukhna] (Deraniyagala 1955:48; Jayewardene
1994:20,121;Spinage 1994:34; Cannon & Davis 1995:38; Katugaha 1997:67)
Tuskless male; amale – without tusks – but with tushes; a tush elephant.
Also a generic termfor elephant.

1997—博茨瓦纳、皮米比亚、津巴布韦提议将其国内种群降等级为附录II,并同意销售其仓库储存。CITES基于各国民代表大会象种群的理想状态通过了提案,允许三国可“三回性one—off”销售象牙给CITES钦定的购买者。那第2次“1遍性”销售产生一九九七年,买家是东瀛。

Allomother义母:[又见:auntie阿姨] (Riedman 1983:405; Lee 1九八7;
Buss 一九八6:一伍,1拾; Moss &Colbeck
一九九三:8陆)异母雌性的母性行为,包涵安抚性哺乳(comfort
suckling)。青年或亚成雌象参加照顾、协理和维护家族(family
unit)的幼象,但不是其阿妈(恐怕为胞姐)。义母(allomother)和大姨(auntie)相似,一般而言前者对幼象的照应越来越持久。Maternalbehavior
by a female not the calf’s mother; may include comfort suckling.Juvenile
or adolescent female elephants that comfort, assist, and protectcalves
in the family unit, but are not the calves’ mother (but may be
theirolder sibling). Allomother and auntie are similar; in general the
former is amore prolonged assistance with the young.

2002—南非共和国向CITES建议了降级的提请,并与博茨瓦纳、皮米比亚、津巴布韦共同寻求第一次“叁回性销售”。第叁次发出在二零一零年,CITES选取中日为买家。对于开放中华夏族民共和国象牙贸易市集是不是会加重盗猎,格外部分生态保障职员代表担忧[4]。

Anal-fold/anal-flap肛瓣: (Sikes1971:frontispiece
[photo]):象尾基部三角形的瓣状皮肤,当尾巴垂下时将肛门覆盖。Triangularflap
of skin at base of tail, which when lowered covers the anus.

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Ani(Tamil)大象(泰Mill语): [also: anay ] (Lahiri-Choudhury
1999:455)Elephant.

2007—亚洲象结盟(African Elephant Coalition,
AEC)推动CITES通过了1项新禁令,象牙仓库储存销售的九年禁令。(当时提议20年禁令,CITES折中通过了九年禁令,并保留了二遍性销售策略)[5]

Anguli(Sanskrit)象指(梵语): (Edgerton 1931:114) “Finger” at the
endof trunk.

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Ankus象钩: [also:angusam, ankusa, ankush, angkus, choon, crook,
gajbag, goad, guide, haunkus,hawkus, hendoo, hendu, henduwa, thotty,
bull-hook, hook, driving-spike](Tennent 1867:155,156; Carrington
1958:174; Chadwick 1992:18, 297-298;Jayewardene 1994:51-52,121; Cannon &
Davis 1995:110,113 [photo],172; Lair一九九九:272; Lahiri-Choudhury
一九九陆:455)一端带有尖锐、指长的金属弯钩,用以明白、驯导大象。Shortstick
with a sharp, curved, finger-length metal hook at the tip, used
tocontrol and direct captive elephants. A hooked goad for driving
elephants.Euphemistically, sometimes, called “guide”.

2009~2013—MIKE
PIKE水平和ETIS象牙罚款和没收数据表明,盗猎和非法贸易已经升高到严苛的水准,超过了大象种群自然增加的程度,种群数量将下落。

Artificial-insemination人工授精: [同: A.I.] (Schmitt, et al. 199九;
Olson
1998)通过人工手段将将精液流入雌性体内。近十多年,通过相当精液(非冷冻)结合现代技能,才在圈养象身上兑现。Impregnationof
a female with semen by artifical means. Only recently has this
procedurebeen successful with captive elephants, using modern techniques
and fresh[rather than frozen] semen.

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Asana(Sanskrit)象肩隆(梵语):象夫所坐之处(艾德gerton 一玖三5:11伍)
Withers; place where mahoutsits.

2011—盗猎和大量象牙罚款和没收数量之高使得201壹年被誉为灾年(annus
horibilis)

Askari(Kiswahili)象守卫(斯瓦西里语):指巨型、年长公象周围的后生雄象,他们随同和防卫象征着文化和经历的“象主”(Buss
198玖:4贰,四三; Smith 一玖九一:140-1肆一) Word meaning”soldier” or “guard”; the
attendant younger bull(s), oftenin the company of an old, very large
bull. In Hindustani the term is chela(Krishnan 一九七三:31伍; 丹尼尔勒199九:8八).

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Atha(Sinhalese)长牙象(僧伽罗语): (Deraniyagala 1955:48;
Jayewardene 1994:20,121;Spinage 1994:34; Cannon & Davis 1995:38;
Katugaha 1997:67) Male with tusks;a tusker.

2012—上百名苏丹金戈威德(武装民兵)盗猎者骑马600多英里来到喀麦隆包巴恩丹佛国家公园(Bouba
Ndjida National
Park),在几天内杀死了最少300头大象,被视为一回史无前例的屠戮[6]。

Ath-gala(Sinhalese)围栏捕(僧伽罗语):用围栏捕捉大批量大象的点子(僧伽罗语)[seealso:
kheddah, kraal] (Cannon & Davis 1995:172) Method of capturing
largenumbers of elephants by the use of a stockade.

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Athinne(Sinhalese)短牙象(僧伽罗语):
[also: atini] (Deraniyagala 1955:48; Cannon &Davis 1995:38;
Jayewardene 1994:20,121) Female with tushes.

2012—前米国国务卿希Larry·Clinton向满世界发出结束南美洲大象屠杀的表现呼吁“Call
for Action”[7]。

Auntie阿姨:[又见: allomother义母] (Williams一玖四玖:60-陆1)老母身边的雌象(平日是胞姐)支持照看新生象。(auntie)和(allomother)相似,一般而言后者对幼象的看管更加久。Female–oftenan
older daughter–that stays with a mother and helps out with the
newbornbaby. Auntie and allomother are similar; in general the latter is
a moreprolonged assistance with the young.

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Babesiosis巴Bessie虫病:(McKenzie
199三:678)1种由寄生于红细胞内的巴Bessie虫(Babesia
sp.)经硬蜱叮咬传播的人兽共患病Tick-borne disease caused by a blood
parasite,Babesia sp.

2012—中中原人民共和国中高阶层消费者的充实促进了对象牙出品的要求,将京城象牙标价推到每磅一千美金。CITES意识到澳洲象盗猎再次达到了不可持续的程度[6]。

Bai森林空场(probably a creolization of the French baie, meaning
bay): [see also:salt-lick] (Quammen
200叁:54)在中国和亚洲,雨林中一片湿润的空地,在此处常看到大象和别的动物来喝水和食用糖类。英斯ntral
Africa, a wet clearing in the rainforest, where elephants and
otheranimals come to drink and eat minerals.

2013—前米利坚管辖前美总统通过行政命令(Executive Order —— Combating
魏尔德life
Trafficking)打击野生动物走私活动[8]。(在此行政命令基础上,U.S.A.于201陆年因而了全国性的禁令,大致统统禁绝澳洲象象牙在国内的商贸[9,10])

“Bamboo”牙竹:(Sanderson 一⑨陆二:
21陆)象牙基部中空的局地,也称牙髓腔。Hollow,basal

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partof a tusk; also called the nerve-cavity, pulp-cavity.

2014— Paul Allen和“大象无国界Elephants Without
Borders”协会倡导了第一次泛非大象航空考察项目,“大象普遍检查The Great Elephant
Census(GEC)”,将提供新型、最科学的澳洲象数量和散播数据,为大象的永续提供至关心珍视要音讯[11]。

Bazaar, elephant象集:[see also: mela] (Shand 1九玖1:五,2柒,15八-1九三;
Hall
3000:3伍)大象被出示和出售的会议。世界上最大的象集于历年3月在孔雀之国比哈尔邦的桑纳普尔镇举行,位于莱茵河和甘达基河交汇处A
fair; in this case an elephantfair, where elephants are bought and sold.
The largest in the world is anannual affair [November], held at
Sonepur at the confluence of the Ganges andGandak Rivers in Bihar,
India.

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Bite-size单次进食量:(McKay 197三:56,95; 盖伊 197五:二; Ruggiero
一九9一:145)平均每口的进食量,预计27-200克,不一致观测者和取食种类进食量分歧。Average
amount of food taken in with eachtrunkful; estimated between 27-200 g,
depending on observer and type of foodeaten.

2015—大象普遍检查GEC的宇宙航行调查进程已超过二分一,开始的数目展示一些国家部分地区的大象种群显明下降,同时也在有个别未记录过的地面发现了大象。

Bolus粪丸:(Benedict 193陆:17八-17九,1八一-1捌四; Guy 1九柒陆:290; Estes
一九九4:26二)单个球状粪便。平均每回排便排出3-多少个粪丸,每一日约1四遍排便,约排15五公斤粪便/二四时辰。Single
ball of feces. An average of 三-五 boli are droppedat each defecation,
approximately 17 times per day, for an approximate total of155 kg of
feces/2四 hr.

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Boma博马(斯瓦西里语Kiswahili):(McKenzie
19九③:67八)泛指全体凸起的、起防守爱抚目标的布局,如围栏。在东非和南非共和国,亦指权且收留动物的围场。Anykind
of raised structure for defensive or protective purposes; a stockade.
InEast and southern Africa, the term also refers to an enclosure for
thetemporary containment of animals.

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Bond group族群:[又见:亲朋好友团kinship
group;社会群众体育组成socialorganization] (Moss & Poole 1玖捌三:3一5,31八,3二一; Poole
一玖九伍:33二,33四).长时间保持联系的多少个或以上有骨血关系的家门;在阔别重逢后,会相互发生问候的隆声音,并进行高强度的致敬仪式。Two
ormore related family units, who show a strong association over time;
after aseparation they greet each other with greeting rumbles or an
Intense GreetingCeremony.家族族长应有亲缘关系。

2016—今年9月,可期待GEC的结果…

Boormeergah(Hindustani):融合koomeriahmeergah两类象特点的象种(印度Stan语)(Shand
1九九八:6三) A type of elephant that is ablend of thekoomeriahand
themeergah.

参考:

Boro(Wata [Kenya]):(Parker & Amin
1九捌叁:四7)雄象每支长牙超越35磅。Malewith tusks of about 35 lbs. each.

一.象牙贸易史

Brachyodont低冠齿型:[也称brachydont;又见:高冠齿hypsodont、臼齿molar]
(Shoshani
一9九九:481)臼齿齿冠中度小于等于齿根中度;见于早期某个长鼻动物。Referringto
molars with low-crowns; found in some early proboscideans.

http://nationalgeographic.org/media/history—ivory—trade/

Breeding herd繁殖群:[又见:cow-calf
group雌幼群、socialorganization社会群众体育组成]由成年雌象和其子孙组成的部落。在南非(South Africa),繁殖群壹词平日与家族同义。Groupof
mature females and their offspring. Especially in southern Africa, the
termis often used as synonymous with family unit.

二.美利哥象牙交易有关事件时间线

Breeding, seasonal繁殖期:(Laws 壹玖陆九:19玖-200,20三,2一五; 汉克s
1975b:1三,一柒,1八,2二-2三; 威廉姆斯on壹97八:8九,90,玖壹; Craig 1983; 哈尔l-Martin19八柒:616-617,61八;
Poole1玖87:2八五,305,309,3一三)一年中多数雌象受孕发生的时期。在旱雨季明显的地带,繁殖高峰发生在象肉体处境上佳的雨季以及雨季后;在旱雨季不令人注指标所在,繁殖能够全年发生。“雨季充沛的水财富带来了非凡的滋生环境、高性能的食物以及象放松的心绪,而雨季之后,象群家族又即将分离去摸索水源和食物,外在和内在因素共同功用导致了滋生高峰期的面世”(威廉姆斯on
1980:91)。Time of year when the majority ofconceptions take place. In
areas with a pronounced wet/dry cycle, breedingpeaks during and
following the rainy season when elephants are in good condition;in areas
with a less pronounced wet/dry cycle, breeding may occur throughoutthe
year. “Breeding peaks are probably a product of an increase in
wateravailability and the consequent dispersions….away from artificial
waterholes[@ Hwange NP, Zimbabwe], resulting in favourable breeding
conditions underreduced stress, and to the seasonal availability of high
quality food”(Williamson 1976:91).

http://www.hsi.org/assets/pdfs/Elephant\_Related\_Trade\_Timeline.pdf

Browse食叶:[see also: graze] (Owen-Smith 1981:360,372,37三;
Shoshani 一九九二:5四)食树或灌丛的叶、芽、细枝、嫩枝。To eat leaves, buds,
twigs, shoots of treesand shrubs (i.e. woody vegetation).

3.象牙与不安定性:澳洲盗猎的天下影响

Buccal depression 颊凹:(Albl
一玖七四:135,13八,140)指两侧脸颊颧弓(zygomatic-arch)下方的陷落区域;凹陷的水准是年龄的指令,某种程度反映身体情状。Depression
in the cheekregion of the sides of the head, below
the
zygomatic-arch;depth
is a good indication of age and–to a lesser
extent–ofphysical-condition.

http://savetheelephants.org/wp—content/uploads/2014/03/2012IDHCongressHearing.pdf

Budi(language ? [Tanzania]):在坦桑尼先生亚指无牙象(Rushby
1玖伍三:13一;Capstick 一9玖二:3四) In Tanzania, a tuskless elephant.

  1. Ivory auctions raise 15 million USD for elephant conservation

Bull公象:(Ford & Beach 一九伍三:270)成年雄象。Adult male.

https://cites.org/eng/news/pr/2008/081107\_ivory.shtml

Bull area雄象区:[又见: retirement area养老区] (Moss& Poole
1九捌叁:31八,32三; 哈尔l-Martin 19八7:616,61八; Buss 198玖:4三; Moss &Colbeck
1995:10玖)在性休止(sexual-inactive)时代,成年雄性占领的领域。Regioninhabited
mainly by mature males, during periods of sexual inactivity.

  1. CITES — Good news for elephants

Bull group雄象群: [=bull herd雄象群,bachelor
herd单身群;又见:socialorganization社会群众体育组成] (McKay 1973:81-84; Moss &
Poole1983:316,318,322,323,325; Hall-Martin 1987:619; Buss 1990:28,36;
Estes1991:261)成年、或亚成[14-16岁]聚集的群;那种聚集是长期、偶见的1种组成[在Kenny亚,群大小二-二八只,平均三.八(Moss & Poole
198三:31六)]。雄群个体间的交换一般是放松、友好的;某1私人住房与别的雄性或雌性的关联取决于其年龄和性状态[又见:sexually
active/inactive性活跃/休止,
musth狂暴];在强行的中度性活跃期,雄性经常靠近雌性或独立活动(Poole &
Moss ①九8九:116)。Gathering of mature, andsometimes a few adolescent [as
young as 14-16 years] males; these males do notusually form any
long-term bonds with each other, although some may [@Amboseli, Kenya,
bull groups averaged 3.8, with a range of 2-25 (Moss &Poole 1983:316)].
Interactions between members of a bull group are usuallyrelaxed and
amiable; whether a bull associates with other bulls or with
femalesdepends on its age and sexual state [see also: sexually
active/inactive,musth]; during the heightened sexual-stage of musth,
males are typically foundwith females or alone (Poole & Moss 1989:116).

http://www.davidshepherd.org/news—events/detail.php?id=001153

Bulling problem雄暴难点:(亚历克斯ander
两千:十)圈养雄象狠毒期的管制难点。The problem of musth,in the keeping of
captive male elephants.

  1. Elephants Dying in Epic Frenzy as Ivory Fuels Wars and Profits

Bunolophodont丘脊齿型:(Savage& Long 1990:24玖; Tassy
1九玖8:二一)低冠齿的锥形或圆形的齿尖排列成丘脊,是早期大象臼齿用以研磨食品的布局。Low-crownedtooth
with domed cusps which are transversely linked by a loph or ridge.
Referringto the structure of the grinding-三星GALAXY Tab of elephant molars.

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/04/world/africa/africas—elephants—are—being—slaughtered—in—poaching—frenzy.html?pagewanted=all&\_r=1&

Burying behavior掩埋行为:(Kühme 1963:6八-6玖;
Kühme1九六三:1一七)象因此抛散土、树枝树叶等实体以掩埋某指标的一颦一笑,如象或任何躺卧的动物。elephantattempts
to bury an object, such as a prostrate animal (elephant or
otherspecies).

7.Secretary Clinton’s ‘Call for Action’ on illegal wildlife trade

Calf幼象:[又见: age groups年龄构成]
(Lee壹玖八九:27九)常常不足四虚岁的小象。Youngelephant, generally less than 肆years old.

https://cites.org/eng/news/pr/2012/20121111\_wildlife\_trafficking.php

Calf-distress幼象悲鸣:(Lee
1玖87:28七)当叁只幼象处在困境时,它会产生深沉的隆声,或是高声的吼、喊、尖叫声,以引起别的象的注目和共鸣。Whena
calf is in distress, it gives a deep, low rumble or a loud bellow,
cry,scream, or roar, which evokes dramatic responses by other elephants.

8.Executive Order —— Combating Wildlife Trafficking

Capture myopathy捕捉性肌病:(McKenzie
19九三:67八)一种由肌肉剧烈厌氧活动导致的毛病,经常与捕捉行为有关,造成心肌或骨骼肌损伤。Diseaseinduced
by excessive anaerobic muscular activity, usually following
exertionassociated with capture; characterized by lesions of skeletal
and cardiacmuscle.

https://www.whitehouse.gov/the—press—office/2013/07/01/executive—order—combating—wildlife—trafficking

Carcass-decompostion, stages of尸体降解阶段: (Douglas-Hamilton
&Douglas-Hamilton 1992:109-110; Poole 1996:194)

9.Obama Announces Major Restrictions on Ivory Trade

Fresh近期:腐败胀气、可知血迹及秃鹫的排放物bloated,blood,
vulture-droppings.

http://time.com/3972237/obama—ivory—trade—restrictions/

Recent年内:短于一年;皱缩的皮包在骨上,周边地面形成秃块,也称作腐烂的斑块lessthan
one year; shrunken skin over bones, surrounded by bare patch of earth,
the”rot patch”.

10.Huge News for Elephants: U.S. Bans Ivory Trade

Old白骨:白骨堆pile of white bones.

http://www.ecowatch.com/huge—news—for—elephants—u—s—bans—ivory—trade—1891161778.html

Veryold碎骨:破碎的灰骨堆pile of gray,cracked bones.

1一.史上最大局面包车型地铁野生动物普核查动物尊崇意义首要

Carcass-ratio尸骸率:
(Barnes & Douglas-汉密尔顿 1985:41四;Douglas-汉森尔顿 & Michelmore
一99九:325)平日经过航空考查笔录归西和存活象的数量,以去世象占总观望象数量的比率表示。Thenumbers
of dead elephants, expressed as a percentage of all elephants seen,both
dead and alive; usually from aerial surveys.

http://m.nationalgeographic.com.cn/animals/facts/4789.html

Caste种姓制度: (Cannon &
戴维斯19九5:3陆,37,十玖,17贰)根据象的特点、性子和在喂养的用处和进献性将其分类。Separating
elephants intocategories, according to their attributes of usefulness in
domestication.

Cathemeral间歇性: [又见:
diurnal/nocturnal/crepuscular昼行性/夜行性/晨昏性]昼夜均活动的动物,如象。Animals,such
as elephants, that are or can be active in portions of the day and
thenight.

Cementum牙骨质: (Espinoza& Mann 19九2:2玖; Spinage
一玖9三:21玖)包裹在臼齿或长牙牙本质表面包车型大巴钙化组织;类似骨质结构,比牙本质软;首要起将牙根固定在颚骨上的效果。Moderatelycalcified
tissue surrounding the dentine of a molar or tusk; softer thandentine
and more like bone in structure. Its main function is to anchor thetooth
to the jaw-bone.

Chang peuak(Thai)白象(泰语): (丹尼尔勒1九9八:3陆)稀少且神圣的白象A
rare and revered “whiteelephant”.

Chang samkhan(Thai)白象(泰语): (Komar, etal. 2000:31) A “white
elephant”.

Char-jarma(Hindustani

?): [also:charjama ] (Baker 1890:4八; Sanderson 1907:8九; Carrington
壹九伍八:17伍;Lahiri-Choudhury
一999:45伍)侧向背靠背地坐在大象背上的,较象轿howdah更适于普通的远足。轻便的骑具,可容纳四至几个人侧向背靠背乘坐。Seatonan elephant’s back in which riders sit back to back, facing sideways.
Forordinary travel it is preferred to the howdah. Light riding harness,
which canaccommodate four or more persons, sitting back-to-back facing
the flanks; ithas protective rails at both ends.

Charkaatiya(Hindustani): (Shand19九四:六,二四)为圈养象砍切食品的人Man
who cuts fodder for a captiveelephant.

Chela(Hindustani)象守卫(印度Stan语): (Daniel一玖九七:88)相对于亚洲象的称谓(askari针对北美洲象)Asian term for askari.

Chena land(Sinhalese

?): (Tennent1八六7:64; Lahiri-Choudhury
19九8:45伍)在象岛,1块被砍伐、种植粮食作物、后又遗弃复苏为森林的区域。InSri
Lanka, a patch of forest land that is cleared to raise a single crop,
afterwhich it is abandoned and reverts to jungle again.

Chryselephantine克莉丝里凡亭:
(Sanderson 1962: 220; Parker & Amin1983:98-99,99[photo]; 亚历克斯ander
3000:70,71)一种将象牙、黄金、宝石或某个木材等资料混合的办法样式。在古希腊共和国(The Republic of Greece)时期是地位的表示Artform
in which ivory is mixed with solid gold, cedar, and other woods, gems,
andother materials. Greek
statuesfaced
with
ivory
plates
and decorated with gold
and gold leaf.

CITES华盛顿公约:
(Greaves1九九八:1四一)是濒临灭绝的危险野生动物植物物种国贸公约英文首字母的缩写,由多国签署、1975年生效,目的在于对象牙、皮张以及任何野生动物植物物制品的贸易举行保管。Acronym
for “Conventionon International Trade in Endangered Species”, a treaty
signed in 1975 bymany countries to regulate the trade in ivory, skins,
and other animal productstaken from the wild.

Clan氏族: [又见:社会群众体育组成social organization] (Moss& Poole
1983:3一5,317,32二,3二叁; 哈尔l-马丁 1玖8七:61陆; Moss 一玖8七:7陆,1二陆,13二;Estes
1994:贰陆1; Poole
1992:334)共享旱季家域的家族[Kenny亚安博塞利曾记录五个氏族,分别有玖、八、5、陆个家门]。声音录放实验表明象可以识别氏族内和非氏族成员。Family
units that use the samedry-season home-range [@ Amboseli, Kenya, 4
clans contained 9,8,5,5 familyunits, respectively (Moss & Poole
1983:317)]. Playback experiments showthat elephants distinguish between
clan and non-clan members (McComb, et al.2000).

Color-vision色彩视觉:(Owen-Smith 一九八二:3捌7; Sukumar
200三:140)在弱光环境下,象眼具有限的情调视觉,但在强光下为浅黄的社会风气。Abilityto
see colors, as opposed to simply variations of intensity-of-grey (i.e.
black& white). Elephants may see in shades-of-grey in bright light, but
havelimited color-vision in dim light.

Colostrum初乳:
(McKenzie19⑨三:678)阿娘分娩后最初分泌的乳汁,包括高浓度的抗原水平First
milk secreted bymother after birth; contains high levels of antibodies.

Comfortsuckling安抚性哺乳: [又见:
allosuckling义亲哺乳、nursing护理] (Lee
1九捌七:28八-290)接受非亲幼象做出的吸入行为。平常见于无产奶能力的亚成雌象或任何成年雌象(非幼象亲母)。很多场合下是幼象的太婆给予营养帮忙。也大概是母象为二头紧张的幼象提供安抚。Permittinga
calf, not her own, to attempt to suckle. Usually observed in
adolescentfemales who cannot provide milk; but adult females may also
suckle calves nottheir own. In many cases these are the calf’s
grandmother, and the calfprobably receives nourishment. May also be
provided by the mother, to a calfthat has experienced stress.

Compressionhypothesis压缩假说: (Sukumar
一九9二:9九)人类的集合使得象分布范围被缩减,导致局地象的丰度过高。Overabundance
of elephants, owing to compression of their range by humansettlement.

Consortbehavior交配行为: [=consorting配对, consortship配偶](Moss
1九8三:17陆-177; Estes 一玖玖伍:560; Moss & Colbeck
19九二:17七)雄象,经常为远在凶横状态的私家,与发情雌象结合的一言一行。大概无休止几天,在里面发生高频配对行为Association
of amale, usually in musth, with a female in estrus. May persist for
several days, duringwhich multiple copulations may take place.

Contagiousbehavior行为传染: [= movement, coordination of] (Kühme
1玖六3:1一伍;McKay 197三:肆,7伍,7柒; Moss
1九八三:170)个体的作为造成同伴相似性行为的发出。Behaviorin which the
actions of one individual result in similar actions by companions.

Coppice小灌丛:
(Greaves1九玖玖:1四一)木本植被破坏后再生的次级植物Secondary re-growth of
damagedwoody vegetation.

Coprolite粪化石: (Savage& Long 198玖:24九)石油化学工业的大便Fossilized dung.

Coprophagy食粪性: (Kühme 1965:290)食用粪便Eating of feces.

Cow雌象: (Ford& Beach 一玖伍二:27贰)成年雌性Adult female.

Cow-calfgroup雌幼群: [又见: breeding herd繁殖群;social
organization社会群众体育组成] (Moss 19八三:16八; Poole &Moss 一九八陆:1壹三,11四; Buss
一玖八七:2八; Moss & Colbeck 19玖4:40;
Poole1991:331,33二)一只或四头成年雌性和其后代形成的部落。家族family
unit和雌幼群cow-calf
group有一些分别,由于家族成员不会一而再稳定集合的,雌幼群能够表示其他情势雌象和幼象的重组,不思考亲缘关系,能够归纳两至广大个民用。Gatheringof
one or more mature females and their offspring. There is some confusion
inthe use of the terms “family unit” and “cow-calf group”,because
families may not always be stable. Here a “cow-calf group” isany
gathering of cows and calves, without regard to their relatedness. It
mayconsist of anything from two to hundreds of individuals.

Crupper后鞧: (Baker 1890:50; Shand
1991:二伍)指栓于象臀尾下起永恒象轿作用的预制构件,平日是平缓硬质的五金材质Unitthat
passes under an elephant’s tail to help secure the howdah; often made
ofmetal; smoothness, not softness, is important.

Crush夹笼: [同: elephant-restraint-device象束缚设备,E.大切诺基.D., E.酷威.
chute, E.奥迪Q7.C.; see also: silinguva] (Williams
1950:70,87x[photo];Sanderson 1962: 191,197[drawing]; McKenzie
一99三:67玖)束缚象的教条器具,是1种举办危险操作时的维护措施Enclosureused
for the mechanical restraint of elephants; a safety measure
whenperforming procedures that may be dangerous.

Culling筛杀: [see also:poaching] (汉克s
一玖七七:11,1伍,39-67,155,一5七,16四; Spinage 198八:15;
Gavron199叁:13一-13二,13四-135,1九二-1九3; 哈尔l-Martin三千)通过狩猎管理手段合法淘汰区域种群过多的动物。在大象筛杀进度中,平时是以家族为单位举办清理。Thelegal
killing of excess animals in a population; used as a game-management
toolby wildlife officials. With elephants, the usual aim is for entire
family unitsto be removed at once.

Dadnabas(Wata [Kenya]):大型雌性北美洲象(Parker& Amin 1玖八3:四7) Large
females.

Dambo(language ?): [see also: vlei ] (Pratt, et al. 一玖6七:380;
Snelson 1997)赞比亚,无树、在雨季泛滥的涝原草地In Zambia, a flat, grassy
drainage channelthat floods in the rainy season and supports no trees.

Dana(Sanskrit)颞液(梵文):[also: temporal gland secretion,
T.G.S.] (艾德gerton 193四:11八)亚洲象暴虐期的颞腺分泌液Fluidthat flows from
the temporal glands in musth.

Danas(language ?): (Shand
1998:50)一种圈养象的食物,将水稻和盐混合推入天宝蕉秆制成Food for captive
elephants, made from wheat and salt rolled in a banana stalk.

Decoy elephant象诱:(Cannon & Davis199五:17二)驯象以引发捕捉野生象。Tame elephantused to lure wild elephants
for capture.

Dentine/dentin牙本质:[又见: ivory象牙] (Spinage一玖玖四:218; 尼尔森19玖七:二四)是一种乳木色到色情的矿化物质,人类和动物牙齿的绝大多数是由它构成。Hard,mineralized
connective tissue that forms the main substance of a molar or
tusk.Formed of collagen, calcium, phosphate, and carbonate.

Diestrus忠于间期:[同:
dioestrus动情间期;又见: estrus发情期, pre-estrus动情中期,
metestrus动情前期] (Arey, et al.1九伍七:3八4; Jainudeen, et al.
1974:32叁)雌性哺乳动物动情中期和下次动情中期之间性休止的时期Periodof
sexual quiescence occuring between metestrus and pre-estrus in
femalemammals.

Diploe板障:颅盖骨表层密质内板和外板之间蜂巢状的骨质结构称为板障,板障的气室和气胞结构使得骨骼轻而坚韧,象颅骨内首要为那种样式的组织。Pneumatizedbone
containing air cells making the bone light-weight, yet
strong;honey-combed bone. In elephants, the skull especially is of this
form.

Displacement activity替代行为:(Tinbergen 1951; Estes
199伍:5陆一)常常发生在冲突意况中的行为,行为表现常常与景况不相干(如饱受争持时突显的温存行为)。日常此类行为源点于仪式化的展现作为。Typeof
behavior, usually found in conflict situations, in which activities
areperformed that seem out-of-context (e.g. comfort-movements during a
hostileencounter). Often the origin of behavior patterns shown in
ritualized displays[q.v.].

Display, ritualized秩序形式化显示:(Tinbergen 一玖五一; McFarland
198七:4八三-4捌5; Estes 19九一:5陆1; Kahl &
Armstrong3000)行为形式在升高进度中发出、修正、固定、仪式化,用以传达个人的心理和目标。在象中已记录十0种左右展现作为。Behavior-pattern
that has been derived, modified, andstereotyped through evolution, and
which communicates information to otheranimals about the sender’s mood
and/or intention. Approximately 100 suchdisplays have been described in
elephants.

Diurnal/nocturnal/crepuscular日行性/夜行性/晨昏性:(McKenzie
1993:679,681) [又见:
cathemeral间歇性]多数活泼时间分别集中在大廷广众/夜间/日出和日落Most
active during the daytime/nighttime/around sunsetand sunrise,
respectively.

Dominant
frequency优势频率,主频[缩写D.F.]
:[又见:
fundamental
frequency骨干频率,peak
frequency峰频率] (伯格 1玖八三:六伍)象声音最高强度的效能。Frequencyof
highest intensity in an elephant vocalization.

Dudurucha(Wata[Kenya]): (Parker & Amin
1九八三:4肆)不足八虚岁的青春雄性欧洲象Young male of less than 捌 years old.

Dwarf elephant矮化象:(Caloi, et al. 一9玖八; Roth
1998)与侏儒象不一样,是体型矮化的长鼻类,平时发现于史前时期的岛屿上,已灭绝[=insular
dwarfism小岛侏儒化]。Smallerforms of Proboscidea, usually found on
islands in prehistoric times [=insulardwarfism]; now extinct. To be
distinguished from pygmy elephant [q.v.].

Dwasala(language ?): [also: samkirna, misra ] (艾德gerton
1九三三:1贰,16; Sanderson
190七:8三,8四)二等象,最家常的小象类型。等级在koomeriah和meergah之间,恐怕是那二种象的杂交Second-rate
elephant, classed between akoomeriah and a meergah. Probably a
half-breed mixture of those other two. Mostordinary elephants are of
this type.

Eburnian类象牙:由象牙、象牙巢倾卵破或外观相仿象牙质地制成的物品Made of
or pertaining to ivory.

Ek-danteya(Sinhalese)雄性独牙象:(Cannon & Davis 1995:38; Katugaha
1997:67) A single-tusked male.

Enamel牙釉质:(Spinage 一9玖三:21九; Nelson19玖七:2四)牙齿最外层起保卫安全作用的僵硬光滑的组织;象牙刚长出时起保障尖部作用,非常的慢便被破坏。Hard,glossy
covering of tip-of-tusk when it first emerges; quickly worn away.

Enrichment, environmental环境丰容: [=enrichment,
behavioral行为丰盛化] (Abramson & Carden
19玖陆)环境中为知足圈养象社交需要(同其余象)或娱乐的目的等增置的成份。Provisionof
social interaction (i.e. other elephants) and interesting things
forcaptives to do, play with.

Estrus发情期:[名词= estrus发情;形容词=
estrous发情的;同:oestrus/oestrous发情/发情的] [又见: diestrus间情期,
pre-estrus动情中期, metestrus动情早先时期, reproductivecycling生殖周期]
(Hess et al. 1玖8三; Moss 1九捌3:17九,180-1八一;Buss 1九8七:11一-11四; Poole
1九九2:336; Brown2000:34八)雌性充满性欲的时期,也是排卵、交配高发的时期。唯有在那段时代雌性允许雄性产生交配行为;雌性倾向于选取处在无情期的强壮雄象。性干练、非怀孕雌象的动情周期平常是1二-17周(85-120天),发情持续二-八日。圈养象的发情可因此排卵期血液中扩充的孕激素含量探测到。Period
of “heat” infemales; associated with ovulation and the time that
conception is most likelyto occur. Only during this period do females
permit copulation by males; theyusually show a preference for older
males, especially those in musth. Estruscycles are approximately 1二-一7weeks (85-120 days) in sexually mature,non-pregnant females, and the
estrous period usually lasts 二-陆 days. Incaptivity estrus can be
detected by a progesterone surge in the blood aroundthe time of
ovulation.

Ethogram行为谱:(Immelmann & Beer 一九八七:九一-玖二; Abramson & Carden
一9九七:20陆)1种动物整体表现的叙述名录。特别是对在基因影响下形成的秩序形式化行为的叙说,对精晓其报纸发表音信有第一意义。Descriptiveinventory
of the elements which make up the entire behavior of a
species,especially the genetically-influenced ritualized displays that
communicatesignals from one individual to another.

Ethology行为学:(威尔逊 197伍:5八肆; 伊梅尔mann & Beer
一9玖〇:玖二-九三)探究自然条件下动物作为的课程,包蕴因果关系、外部激励、内部生理机制、行为个体发育、进化行为学等内容。Studyof
behavior under natural conditions, including the causation,
externalstimulation, internal physiological mechanisms, ontogeny, and
evolution ofbehavior.

Family unit家族:[同: family家庭, matriarchalfamily母系家庭,
matriarchal unit母系单元;又见: social
organization社会群众体育组成]有骨血关系的雌性与其子孙组成的单元。家族间存在长时间的牵连,分别重逢后,会相互发生欢迎的低隆声、并拓展热情的欢迎秩序形式。草原象家族日常玖-十多少个成员[如在肯尼亚安博塞利,每一个家族平均玖.多少个成员,数量2-3十二个例外(Moss
&
Poole1玖八三:3一5-31陆)]。对于森林象,常发现形成较小的家门[如中国和北美洲共和国树丛象平均家族大小为贰.柒(Turkalo
& Fay 1995:4捌)]。家族”family unit”和 雌幼群”cow-calf
group”有一对差距,家族中的雌象和幼象的直系关系近并长时间保持密切关系。Relatedadult
females and their immature offspring. They form very close
long-termassociations and, after a period of separation, greet each
other with greetingrumbles or an Intense Greeting Ceremony. In Loxodonta
africana, usually 九-20individuals [e.g. at Amboseli, Kenya, family
units averaged 9.4, with a rangeof 2-29 (Moss & Poole 1983:315-316)].
African forest elephants (Loxodontacyclotis), however, are usually found
in smaller family units [e.g. averaging2.7 in Central African Republic
(Turkalo & Fay 1995:48)]. There is someconfusion in the use of the
terms “family unit” and “cow-calfgroup”. Here a “family unit” consists
of related females andtheir young that stay closely associated over
time.

Female-choice雌性采用:[同: mate-selection配偶选择]
(Moss1九八三:18三,186,1玖2,193; Poole
一九八八:31一)雌性对于性伴侣主观的取舍[常见是强行的雄象]。Active selection,
byfemales, of specific males [usually those in musth] as sexual
partners.

Fighting争斗:(Poole 198陆a:1四3,1四5,1四七,150,15壹; Estes 19九四:二六三; Poole
19九二:33柒)经常指严重的打架(互殴在无情象中提高)行为,与小象的打架游戏分化(如小象河南中国广播集团大的搏杀)Generally
refersto serious combat (e.g. the escalated contests between
musth-bulls), as opposedto play-fighting (e.g. the Sparring often seen
between young bulls).

Fil(Arabic)大象(菲律宾语): Word for elephant.

Flatlining乏情:[同: flatliner;又见: reproductivecycling生殖周期]
(Schulte 1997:220; Brown2000:35陆-35八)发情周期缺失,特别是在圈养的夕阳雌象身上Lack of estrous
cycling, especially inolder captive females.

Flehmen性嗅:[又见:
testing嗅探, vomeronasalorgan犁鼻器] (Rasmussen, et al. 1九84; Schulte&Rasmussen
壹玖九陆b:126玖)指通过嗅觉检查以明确对方的性状态(如动情或非动情)。在大象中,性嗅行为经过接触任何象或其分泌物,并将象鼻指放入嘴中实现。超过四分之1景况为雄性嗅探雌性,而雌性检查雄性或其它雌性的状态一模一样常见。Inelephants,
it refers to the placing of the trunk-tip in the mouth afterolfactory
testing of another elephant or its by-products. Presumably done inorder
to determine the sexual status (i.e. estrous or non-estrous) of
thefemale. Mostly done by males to females, but may also be performed by
femalesto males or other females.

Free-contact自由接触:[又见: protected-contact爱抚性接触](多伊尔19玖3)人和圈养象可开始展览无爱慕性措施、不受约束的接触。Working withcaptive
elephants, in which there is no barrier between the human and
theelephant.

Frugivory果实性:(Savage & Long 1986:249; Estes
1991:561)食果实。Fruiteating.

Fundamental frequency基本频率,基频[缩写F.F.]: [又见:peak
frequency峰值频率;dominant frequency优势频率](Berg198三:陆伍)象声中最低的功能。Lowest frequency of sound in anelephant
vocalization.

Gajah(Sanskrit/Indonesian)大象(梵语/印尼语): [also: gaja,
gadja, gadjah, hathi ] (Tennent 18陆七:viii)常常指无牙象Elephant,
generally with no tusks, in Sri Lanka.

Gaja-mukta(Sanskrit/Hindustani)象牙珍珠(梵语/印度Stan语):
[also:gaja-moti ] (Shand 1996:143; Lahiri-Choudhury 1999:455; Hall
2000:162). SeeIvory-pearls.

Gaja-sastre(Sanskrit/Hindustani)象学(梵语/印度Stan语):
[also:gaja-sastra, gaja-shastra ] (Cannon & 戴维斯 19玖伍:172; Shand
19玖九:2四;
Lair199七:26九,277)公元前600-500年写作的大象科学文章,逐字翻译为大象知识或大象学[菲律宾语对应kochasaat,僧伽罗语对应hasti-silpe;缅甸语对应sin-kyan]
Ancient text on the science of elephants,written about 600-500 B.C.;
literally “elephant knowledge”,”elephantology” [In Thailand the term is
kochasaat ; in Sri Lanka itis hasti-silpe ; in Burma it is sin-kyan].

Ganai硬牙: (Eltringham
一九八伍:20陆)指坚硬的长牙,尤其是缘于南美洲森林象的牙Hard ivory, especially
that coming fromforest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis).

Ganesh(Hindustani)独牙象(梵语): [also: Gunesh , Ganesa ]
(Sanderson190柒: 67; Sanderson 1963: 一柒; Krishnan 1九7二:300;
Lahiri-Choudhury
一九玖八:45陆)指生来唯有1边象牙的、尤其是只有左牙(此处原来的作品应有误)的大象,作为象头神的代表拥有极高的神圣性。Elephant
bornwith only one tusk–frightfully holy in India, especially if it
happens to bethe right tusk. Name given to an Asian bull that has only
one tusk visible.Loosely, an elephant with a single tusk, as in the icon
of the Hindu deityGanesha.

Ganesha(Hindustani)象头神(梵语): (Cannon & Davis
1995:30-34,172)The elephant-headed Hindu god.

Gestation period怀孕期:[又见: pregnancy怀孕] (Moss一玖八二:180; Buss
198九:3一; Estes
一九九叁:265)从母象怀孕到小象出生的流年距离,常常长达二十四个月。在安博塞利,平均怀孕期在656±4天。生双胞概率小于一%;Laws
(一9七〇:20伍)曾记录三遍生双胞(2二十四次分娩阅览),Moss
(2001:150)曾记录叁次生双胞(11九一遍分娩旁观)。Periodbetween conception
and birth of a calf; usually given as 2贰 months. AtAmboseli, Kenya, the
mean gestation period was 65陆±四days. Twinning occurs in less than 一% of
births; Laws (1九陆玖:20伍) found twins in三 out of 22贰 pregnancies, whereas
Moss (2001:150) found only one instance in11九2 births.

Goondah(Hindustani)独象(梵语): [also: goonda ; see also:
saun](Tennent 18陆柒:4八; Carrington 一九5七:170; Sukumar 1995:13九,16玖;
Lahiri-Choudhury1997:456)独行的野生雄性澳洲象,个性顽劣,行为残暴。A
wild single maleelephant; a mischievious elephant. Hindustani for
“thug”, badcharacter, rowdy. In Assam, this term refers to a rogue.
There is someconfusion over the meaning of this term. It refers to adult
male elephants. Notgenerally used in S. India. In NE India, it refers to
a large mukhna [=tuskless male]. May be used, loosely, to include any
large – and probablydangerous – male elephant. A loner.

G.P. Syndrome阴茎变色症:[同= green penis;又见: musth狂暴] (Poole &
Moss 一九八四; 哈尔l-马丁 & van der Walt1985:148; Poole
1九捌7:28八)阴茎鞘末端碳黑或灰/中灰的变脸现象,见于狠毒雄性。恐怕由真菌生长引起。Apale
greenish or grey/white discoloration on distal portion of
penile-sheath,shown by musth males. Perhaps caused by a fungal growth.

Graveyard, elephant大象墓地:[同: elephant cemetery大象墓地](哈尔l
3000:256)虚构的大象濒死前去往的地方。大概是因为象时常死在水旁,尸骨堆在一块引发为墓地的联想。Fictionalplace
where elephants are said to go to die. Perhaps based on the fact
thatthey frequently die near water, thereby causing carcasses to be
clustered incertain areas.

Graviportal limb柱状肢:(Savage & Long
一九八八:24九)粗壮、柱形的四肢,以适应承受超大负荷的体重Athick, columnar leg;
adapted for bearing great weight.

Graze食草:[又见: browse] (Guy 197捌:28八,28玖,2玖一,2玖三; 汉克s
197八:1陆七;Owen-Smith 1985:360,37贰,37三; Shoshani 壹9玖4:5肆)食草本植物。Toeat
grass, forbs, etc. (i.e. herbaceous vegetation).

Grooming修饰行为:(Laursen & Bekoff 一九柒8:6; Estes
一玖玖三:26二)是安慰、自理相关行为的协同术语,包蕴打滚、泥浴、沙浴、沐浴、摩擦、刮蹭等。Collectiveterm
for comfort-movements that deal with bodily-care; includes:
wallowing,mudding, dusting, bathing, rubbing, scratching, etc.

Group群:[同:
herd群]有1道活动或作为的数头象,如雄象群bullgroup、雌幼群cow-calf、混合群mixedgroup等。General
term for number of elephants showingcoordinated movement and behavior.
The term “group” is preferred(e.g. bull group, cow-calf group, mixed
group, etc.)

Guda-marge(Hindustani)肛瓣(梵语): [also meet-put (Burmese)]
(Gale1974:157,158) Anal-fold [q.v.].

Gudda(Hindustani)象轿下的象鞍或护垫(梵语): [also: guddie ]
(Shand 1992:24; Shand1996:12; Lahiri-Choudhury 1999:456) Saddle or pad
that goes under the howdah.

Guide驯导:刺棒驯象的婉约说法。端部有指长、锋利、弯曲金属钩的短棒,用以控制和驯服圈养象。钩处刺激象耳后敏感皮肤,迫其做出反应。Aeuphemism
for ankus [q.v.]. Short stick with a sharp, curved, finger-lengthmetal
hook at the tip, used to control and direct captive elephants. A
hookedgoad for driving elephants.

Habituation习惯化:(伊梅尔mann & Beer
一玖八9:1二陆-1贰7)对于某事物,行为反响收缩的长河,是学习忽略无意义事物的进程,Waningof
original behavioral response to something that shows no significance.
Ingeneral terms, learning to ignore something that does not matter.

*Hadâm*(Arabic)工作牙(斯洛伐克共和国(The Slovak Republic)语): (Baker
1890:2玖)更加多应用于工作的长牙,如挖掘等,表面磨损更眼中,平时为右长牙。Theworking
tusk – usually the right – is used more than the other to dig, etc.,and
is, therefore, more worn down.

Han(Burmese)短牙雄象(缅甸语):[see also: aliya, hine, hinge,
mukhna, pussa, tai] (威廉姆斯 壹94七:4四; Gale一玖七三:一5七; Lahiri-Choudhury
一玖98:45陆)无长牙、仅有近似雌象短牙的雄象Bullwith short, stout tusks.
Tuskless bull with only small tushes, such as femalescarry.

Hanko(Japanese)判子(立陶宛共和国(Republic of Lithuania)语): (威廉姆斯 一九八七:15八-15九;
Chadwick壹玖九4:二一柒; 霍尔特-Biddle
一九九3:75,7捌)签署文件时选取的个人身份声明的印鉴,象牙判子是高身价的表示Personalsignature
seals, commonly called “chops”, used in Japan to signofficial documents.
Using a hanko made from ivory confers an elevated status onthe user.

Hastyayurvedah,

The: (艾德gerton
一九三5:viii,xvii)古梵语作品中选用在大象身上的物品,首要与医疗相关。Ancient
Sanskrit work on elephants,dealing primarily with medical treatment.

Hathi(Hindustani/Sanskrit)大象(印度Stan语/梵语): [also:haathi,
hat’hi, hasti, hasthi, hasthin, gaj, gajah, pil ] (Sillar &
Meyler1968:112; Daniel 1998:196; Lahiri-Choudhury 1999:456) Word for
elephant.

Hathi jokar(Hindustani)象颤(印度Stan语): (哈尔l
贰仟:22玖)象夫用来形容大象面对面碰着野生离群象时的恐怖,称为“大象的颤抖”。The”elephant-shivers”,
a term used by mahouts to describe how it feelsto come face to face with
a wild rogue.

Hathisar(Nepalese)象厩(尼泊尔语): (Wemmer
两千:59)在尼泊尔,象厩平时与象夫住宅变为紧凑。InNepal, elephant stable
with facilities for mahout families.

Helper帮手:(M. Garai, pers. comm.)扶助族长保卫象群的雌象。Females
that help the matriarch defend
the group.

Herd群:[同: group] (Estes 1991:562)同group一词。

Hindgut fermenter后肠发酵:(Estes
一九9二:562)非反刍食草动物,如大象,在盲肠和大肠发酵分解蛋白质。Non-ruminantherbivore,
such as elephant, in which breakdown of cellulose occurs in thececum and
large intestine.

Hine(Burmese)无牙雄象(缅甸语): [also: haing, hinge ; see
also:mukhna, han, tai] (Williams 1950:44; Gale 1974:157;
Lahiri-Choudhury 1999:456)Tuskless bull.

Home-range家域:[又见: migration迁徙,population-density种群密度]
(Owen-Smith 1983:388,39二; Poole& Moss 1玖8陆:11二; Estes 一九95:261; Shoshani
1993:5四)3头象或象群特定活动的区域;面积大小取决于地区的生产力水平,小到14平方英里(如坦桑尼先生亚马尼亚拉),大到3500平方英里(如干旱的皮米比亚东西部沙漠)。Areautilized
by an elephant or group of elephants; depending on the productivity
ofthe region, it may be as small as 1四 km② (e.g. at L. Manyara,
Tanzania) or aslarge as 3500 km2 (in arid country, such as the desert of
NW Namibia).

*Hora **allia*(Sinhalese)离群象**(僧伽罗语):[also: hora or
ronkedoors (Dutch)] (Lahiri-Choudhury
一九玖七:456)巴厘岛地区对离群象的名叫。不过否是独象或仅仅是攻击性强雄象的名称并不肯定。Term
used in Sri Lankafor rogue elephants. It is not always clear whether it
signifies all unattachedmales, or just aggressive, dangerous males.

Howdah(Urdu)象轿(乌尔都语): [see also: char-jarma]
(恰剌尔wick1991:3八3; Shand 一9玖三:二伍; Sukumar 19九二:16九; Cannon & Davis19玖5:17二;Lahiri-Choudhury
1996:45六)在北美洲,驯养象背上箱型、带遮蓬的座椅,常用于狩猎。Riding
chairs, for two or more, often with a canopy, used on
domesticatedelephants, primarily in Asia; used mostly for hunting. A
box-like structuretied on an elephant’s back to carry people.

Human-Elephant Conflict人象争辩: [缩写= H.E.C.][又见: Problem
Elephant
Control问题象管理]人类和大象产生争辩的情景,如盗食庄稼时攻击人类或家禽的事件。Situations
whereelephants and humans come into conflict, e.g. crop-raiding,
attacking livestockor humans.

Hypsodont高冠齿:[又见: molar臼齿, brachyodont低冠齿] (Owen-Smith一9八5:3八肆; Estes 一玖9二:56贰; Sukumar 一995:8壹;Shoshani
一9九陆:4八1)指齿冠中度当先齿根中度的齿型,相对平的磨擦表面。适应挤压碾磨生物素食物。Referringto
molars with high-crowns and relatively flat grinding-GALAXY Tabs. Tall
teeth.

Immobilization保定:(McKenzie
199三:680)指使用化学福州药使动物地西泮下来。Term used for thechemical
restraint of an animal. Tranquilizing.

Incisor门齿:(汉克s
壹9柒7:16八)哺乳动物上下颌前方中心地方的门牙。象有局地,上颌第3门牙,成为长牙或短牙(对应澳洲象雌象)。Premaxillarytooth
of a mammal. Elephants have one, the second upper incisor: the tusk
ortush.

Infrasound次声波:(Payne,
et al. 1986; Poole et al. 1988:385,386,391; Poole
1994:332,341,344)声频低于人耳可听范围[<20-30赫兹]的声波;在安博塞利,十钟头的象声取样,唯有贰7%的鸣响记录为人耳可听见的(Poole
& Moss
1987:1一七)。象可甄别一.伍英里外发声的私人住房,对于有个别强大的低频声音在5-10海里外都能被接受到。Soundfrequencies
below
the range of human-hearing [www.188bet .com,<20-30 Hz]; in a 10hr sample of
rumble-vocalizations at Amboseli, Kenya, only 27% of the recordedcalls
were audible to the human observers (Poole & Moss 1989:117). Some
ofthese low frequency calls are extremely powerful. Elephants are able
toidentify calling individuals up to 1.5 km away (McComb, et al. 2000),
andpowerful infrasonic calls can probably be heard up to 5-10 km away.

Inter-calf
interval
产犊间期:[又见:
lactational anestrus哺乳乏情期,recruitment, natality出生率] (Laws
196陆:20叁-20伍,21肆-215;Hanks 一玖七三b:一3,1八,二4; 威廉姆斯on 197八:8玖,90; Moss
2001:151-152,15四)雌性两遍分娩间隔的年月,日常三-玖年(极端:二.75/1三年;Laws
一玖陆陆:20三),取决于环境规范。Intervalbetween births by a given female;
usually ranges from 3-玖 yrs (extremes:二.7五-1三 yrs; Laws 一96八:20叁),
depending on environmental conditions.

Inter-musth残酷间期:[又见: musth, stages
of残暴期;near-musth近暴虐期; peri-musth近暴虐期](Poole
1九八7:30四)一遍凶暴发作间隔的岁月,在年轻雄性身上表现分明,比老雄象频率越来越高。Periodsbetween
bouts of musth, shown primarily by younger [25-35 yrs] males,
whichseem togo in and out o
f
musth more than older males.

Ivory象牙:[又见:长牙tusks] (Espinoza &Mann 1992; Shoshani
1992:47[photo],5九)以象牙为原料,经加工制成各样工艺品,主要成份为牙本质Materialof
which elephant-tusks are composed; made up mostly of dentine. It is used
inthe manufacture of a great variety of artifacts.

Ivory, grades of象牙星等:(Eltringham
1九81:20伍)根据象牙产品的分量和形制将商用象牙个别,出售价格大致遵照以下分别Gradesof
commercial ivory, according to its weight and shape. Selling price
roughlyfollows this sequence.

Vilaiti:当先1八公斤的象牙,日常来自成年雄性。Tusksweighing over 18kg, usually originating from adult males.

Cutchi:(Parker & Amin 1玖八三:14玖)
玖-18千克的象牙,大多来源于雄性。特级象牙用以创建手镯Tusksweighing from
九-18 kg, mostly from males. 特略 grade of tusks used to makebangles.

Calasia:超过4.五公斤的雌象象牙,直径5-7.伍分米Tusks, from females,
weighing more than 4.5 kg and between伍-7.5 cm in diameter.

Fankda:四.伍-九千克的雄象象牙Tusks, from males, weighing from 四.5-9 kg.

Maksub:2.三-4.伍千克的象牙,不论性别Tusks, from either sex, weighing
from二.三-四.5 kg.

Dandia:小于2.3公斤的象牙,不论性别Tusks, fromeither sex, weighing
less than 二.叁 kg.

Chinai:残缺象牙,不论品质Defective tusks of any weight.

Ivory pearls象牙珍珠:[see also: gaja-mukta, gaja-moti ]
(Lahiri-Choudhury 1九9八:45伍; 哈尔l
三千:162)小丸子,类似象牙的素材制成,在欧洲价值较高。Small, round
inclusions that appear tobe composed of the same material as the tusk,
which are sometimes found in thetip of the pulp of a tusk. Highly valued
in Asia. Necklaces of “elephantpearls” are frequently mentioned in
ancient Sanskrit literature.

Jacobson’s organ犁鼻器:[同: vomeronasal organ犁鼻器;又见:
testing嗅探] (Rasmussen et al.1985:160; Rasmussen et al. 1九八二:360;
Estes
1九九二:2陆3,565-56陆)开口于口腔顶壁的化学感受器,对于尿液相关的嗅觉音信很是灵敏。Area,
located in the roof of the mouth, that is sensitive to olfactory
cues,especially those associated with urine.

Juvenile-care unit护幼组:[see also: nursing unit育幼组] (McKay
197三:7二-7伍,7玖-80)澳大乌兰巴托象中,雌象和已断奶幼象的组成。A type of cow-calf
group among Elephas,composed of females and post-weaning juveniles but
no infants.

Juvenile-musth弱狂暴:[see also: moda] (Chandrasekharan et al.
一9玖二:7壹-7二; Rasmussen et al.
二〇〇〇:97伍)圈养青年象[11-20岁]有时候会表现出的近无情状态,只表现残暴态的一些作为。Near-musthcondition
sometimes shown by young [11-20 years old] males in captivity. Theymay
show some signs of musth but not attain full-musth.

Kalasha(language ?? [Kenya])雌象牙出品:(Neumann 1898:46) Cow
ivory.

Karaka(Kiswahili)跟缺:(史密斯壹九玖叁:1四六,148)斯瓦西里语中山大学象脚跟后缘磨损的场馆,是年龄、体型以及象牙尺寸的指令。Kiswahiliterm
for the worn patch on the hind edge of the heel of an old elephant; a
goodindication of age/size….and, therefore, possible tusk-size.

Kari(Sanskrit):(Shand 19九八:55)梵语中对大象脚部疾病的说教。Ancient
word forelephant. Disease of the feet of elephants.

Katapurna(Sanskrit): [see also: kherr musth] (艾德gerton
一九三伍:11陆)梵语中指肿胀的颞区,提醒雄象第3等级的粗野状态。”Full-in-the-temples”;bull
in the first stage of musth, with swollen temporal glands.

Keystone species基石物种:(Shoshani
19九3)一种对于其逗留环境以及环境中别的海洋生物有首要生态影响的物种。象在对环境的熏陶上稍差于人类:如破坏性取食将乔木丛变为草地、挖掘基本为任何动物提供饮水处等。Aspecies
that has major ecological effects on its habitat and, therefore, onother
species living in the same area. Elephants are second only to humans
inthe alteration of their habitat: e.g. by destructive feeding they
change bushto grassland, by digging for water they provide drinking
places for otheranimals, etc.

Kheddah(Hindustani):[also: keddah, khedda, kheda, kheddha,
khedna, k’hedah, gad shikar ] (Tennent1867:104; Sanderson 1907: 72;
Sukumar 1992:38,217; Spinage 1994:280-282;
Daniel1998:208a[photo],208b-c[photo],2拾,21贰-22伍)在印度,以驯养象驱赶野生象被包围在提前安装的捕捉栅栏中的方法。栅栏平常以原木或木桩构成。在巴厘岛,这那措施对应kraal1词,缅甸对应kyone,梵语对应vari。Method
of capturing elephants, in India, where entire herdsare driven into a
corral or stockade using trained elephants as”drivers”. The high-walled
stockade, made of logs or wooden poles,into which elephants are driven.
In Sri Lanka the term is kraal; in Burma it iskyone ; in Sanskrit it is
vari.

Kherr musth(Hindustani)Cole暴虐:[see also: katapurna, near-musth,
peri-musth] (Edgerton 1933:三七; McGaughey1玖6三:拾5; 丹尼尔勒199玖:1二4)暴虐态的第一阶段,颞腺肿胀。First stage ofmusth; sometimes
called “temple-filled”, which refers to the swollentemporal glands.

Kinship group亲属群:[又见: bond group, kin
group族群;socialorganization社会群众体育组成] (Moss 壹9八九:3四,3伍; Poole
一9九三:331,33二)长期保持联系的多少个或上述有亲缘关系的家门;在阔别重逢后,会相互产生问候的隆声音,并拓展高强度的致敬仪式。Twoor
more related family units, who show a strong association over time;
after aseparation they greet each other with greeting rumbles or an
Intense GreetingCeremony.

Kalouk(language ?)象铃:[also: khalauk] (Gale
壹玖七3:158)佩戴在象颈处的木铃或铁铃,用以寻找大象,在澳国科学普及使用。伍德enor
iron bell tied on the neck of an elephant to track its whereabouts;
mostlyused in Asia.

Koomeriah(Hindustani):[also: koomerah, komeriah, koomra, bhadra
] (Sanderson 1907: 83,84,85x[drawing],85,玖二; Sanderson 1961: 260;
Lahiri-Choudhury
一玖九八:四五7)在印度,大象依照品行、血统和力量等被归到不相同种姓。Koomeriah是良种、高阶段的大象,其身影结构被看做最有价值的风味,拥有温和、勇敢、自律、从容、聪明、强壮等特征,适宜训作工作象。Thoroughbred;a
high caste of elephant that is calm, brave, disciplined,
deliberate,ingenious, and strong, favored as a work elephant. In India,
captive elephantsare often referred to, as to which caste of elephants
they belong. The mostprized body-structure in elephants.

Koonkie(Hindustani/Burmese)校长象:[also: koomkie, khoonki,
koonki, kunkie, kumchee, kumki ] (Sanderson 1907:70-71,126; Lair
1997:47,80; Daniel
1998:110,208d[photo])缅甸语男校长的意味,平日为驯化卓绝、温顺耐心的无牙雄象,45-50岁,用于捕捉和练习其余工作象。Sanderson
(190七:
126)记述在孟加拉校长象均为雌象;原词意为辅助,来自于印度Stan文。故此词可指雄象或雌象,取决于使用的区域。kumuk,Burmese
for “schoolmaster”. A well-traineddomestic elephant; often a tuskless
male between 45-50 years of age, chosen forhis docility and patience.
Used for catching and training working elephants. Sanderson(190七: 1二⑥)
says in Bengal they were all females; word derived from Hindustani”kumuk
“, meaning aid. Can be either male or female, depending on thearea in
which the word is used. [See long discussion in
Lahiri-Choudhury1999:457-458.]

Kraal(language ?):[also: korahl, corral; see also: kheddah,
ath-gala] (杰伊ewardene 一9九一:九,12一;Cannon & 戴维斯 199伍:17贰;
Lahiri-Choudhury
1玖九七:45捌)小型围场。在夏威夷,此词用于表示用围栏捕捉大批量大象的章程。Smallenclosure.
In Sri Lanka, the method of capturing large numbers of elephants bythe
use of a stockade.

Kumbha(Sinhalese)颅球(僧伽罗语): [also: kumbastale]
(艾德gerton1九三伍:7壹,11七; 杰伊ewardene
一九九二:1二一)亚洲象头顶四个半球状的布局。Twolarge domes on the top of an
Asian elephant’s head.

Kumla(Hindustani):[see also: mela-shikar] (丹尼尔勒一九九六:21一)留在营地负责校长象食品的人。Manwho remains in camp and is
responsible for feeding the koonkies.

*Kyan **zit*(Burmese)**: (Sanderson 196四:
215)缅甸语中指奇怪形态的象牙,比如垂直牙根向上的象牙等。Odd tusk-form
“in which bothtusks are regularly ringed, constricted, and ridged
throughout their length andright up to their roots, like a bamboo.”

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