天鹅绒之路(Silk Road)1

China-B&R religious dynamics interactions.

The increase of Chinese expat merchant or commercial related communities
in B&R nations will also bring new socio-religious dynamics into these
nations. Although China is an non-religious nation, or having the
largest agnostic population in the world, and one can interprets that
there is no religious connotation as Chinese interact with nationals
from B&R region who are predominately religious. However, nationals of
B&R nations with strong religious sentiments may regards Chinese
merchants who are mostly secularists with secular values who will be
crash with local religious social values. It has been well documented
that some Chinese operate restaurants in Afghanistan are doubled as
brothels and served alcohols to local Muslim youth which infuriated
local Muslim communities. Similarly Chinese run bars and brothels in
Peshawar, Pakistan, for international communities yet were patron by
local Muslim youth which had already caused protests from local Mullahs
leading to the riots and casualties at the Red Mosque in 2007. Also the
perhaps hundreds of Chinese prostitutes in Dubai are currently tolerated
by local authorities so long as the customers are non Dubai national;
but there will come to a point of non-toleration if Dubai nations are
involved. It seems many countries were once welcomed Chinese merchants,
especially since the 1990s till the turn of the Century, are gradually
become ambivalence and even hostile toward Chinese merchants for their
generally profit oriented commercialism in lieu of religious sensitivity
to local culture and values. The prolong lack of religious knowledge and
contact among Chinese population becomes a liability when these secular
Chinese merchants with little religious understanding or sensitivity
encounter with people in societies where religion is an essential part
of the cultural milieu.
Furthermore, the aggressiveness of the Chinese merchants, along with
their usually short business cycles especially the small entrepreneurs,
are drawing increasing negative reception from many B&R countries, from
resentment towards the natural resource exploitation in Myanmar, to
disrespect local religious value (mostly Muslim dominated areas), to
insensitive to local customs such as in Thailand towards Buddhist
customs, and to cause the collapse of local industries such as plastic
manufactures in Morocco, are factors that contribute towards the
international resentments against Chinese presences leading to many
incidents of attacks and expulsion of Chinese expat merchants in recent
years from Kyrgyzstan to Vietnam—both are B&R nations. The State Owned
Enterprises Projects in B&R regions, usually conducting large scale
infrastructure project, are often operated in a hermitic compound with
virtually no social interaction with local communities and Chinese
managers and worker are rather naivety towards local religious customs.
Unless Chinese merchants will have a higher sensitivity on religious
cultural of B&R in general, one may expect that the will be an increase
of negative sentiments towards Chinese merchants in B&R region as
religious values seems to be valued over economic benefits observed from
populations in most of the B&Rs nations–a fact that had not been
appreciated by Chinese who are mostly non- religious and secular in
social values.

1947

参考资料

http://zh.unesco.org/silkroad/

http://zh.unesco.org/silkroad/network-silk-road-cities-map-app/zh

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1962

21 世纪 新丝绸之路

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天鹅绒之路经济带和21世纪的海上丝绸之路 (Belt & Road, B&R)
是一项发展战略和框架, 重点是国家间的连通性和合营,
首倘诺炎黄之内还有欧亚大陆的此外地方它由多个第一组成部分, 陆上
“丝绸之路经济带” (SREB) 和远洋 “海上天鹅绒之路” (MSR)
与战略安顿宣布于二零一五年。 自那时以来,
已在这一发起中支出了许多经济带和征途要旨、钻探所、出版物、网站和内阁分支机构。中国目的在于树立一个新的经济区,
从中国, 包罗拥有的国家在亚欧大陆组成的东盟成员国, 印度的亚欧国家,
新加坡协作协会的成员国,中西北非国家, 西亚江山, 亚洲和东非的一局地。
它包罗大概拥有紧要的全世界经济实体 (除去美洲, 澳大塔那那利佛和新西兰, 西非,
南朝鲜和扶桑等与美利坚合众国涉嫌密切的经济体)。

The Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-century Maritime Silk Road,
also known as The Belt and Road (B&R) is a development strategy and
framework, proposed in 2013 by Xi Jinping that focuses on connectivity
and cooperation among countries primarily between the China and the rest
of Eurasia. It composes of two main components, the land-based “Silk
Road Economic Belt” (SREB) and oceangoing “Maritime Silk Road” (MSR)
with a strategic plan issued in 2015. Since then, numerous Belt and Road
centres, institutes, publications, web sites and Government branches
have been developed on this initiative. In a nut shell, China wants to
create a new economic zone that spans from China to include all the
countries on the Eurasian continents comprising of ASEAN member nations,
Indian Sub continent countries, SCO (Shanghai Cooperation Organization)
member nations, countries of MENA (Middle East North Africa), West Asian
countries, Europe and part of East Africa. It includes almost ALL of the
major global economic entities minus Americas, Australia and New
Zealand, West Africa, Korea and Japan –political economic powers that
traditionally closely linked with USA .

从地缘政治的角度来看, 中国对欧亚大陆的震慑,
一向是自美利坚同盟国撤出阿富汗/伊拉克和苏联解体以来的一个权力真空,
以抵消美利坚合众国在亚太地区 re-asserting 的熏陶。更加是自从奥巴马政坛。 其余,
中国拔取经济而非军事或知识能力作为万有引力的为主,
因为交易–而非战争–历来是亚洲主要的区域间纽带。其它,
中国脚下在包蕴钢铁、水泥、技能劳重力等的根底设备领域的伟人产能过剩,
须求找到出路,
利用此外地点的经济可不止的基本结构在中原正达到饱和点投资有着合理的经济回报。其余,
中国自身在经济成就上的功成名就–即经济进步而不损伤其政治意识形态和社团–可能是累累国家的政治领导人的一个欢迎格局。

From a geopolitical perspective, China pivots its influence on Eurasian
Continent, hitherto a power vacuum since US withdrawal from
Afghanistan/Iraq and the collapse of USSR, to counter balance US
influence which is re-asserting in the Asia Pacific region especially
since the Obama Administration. Furthermore, China utilizes economic
rather than military or cultural power to service as the centre of
gravitation as trade–rather than war–has historically been the major
inter-regional bonds in Asia. Also China’s current huge overcapacity in
infra-structure sector, including steel, cement, skill labour and
expertises, needs to find means to utilize elsewhere economic
sustainable infrastructures in China are reaching a saturation point as
further investment with have few justifiable economic returns.
Furthermore, China’s own success in economic achievement–economic
development without compromise its political ideology and structure–may
be an welcoming model for political leaders in many B&R countries.

这一发达的经济圈涵盖了有些 mindstaggering 的数额: 它包含60八个国家, 63%
的满世界人口 (44亿), 24% 全世界经济, 和30% 的中外 GDP。 中国考虑,
将变成人类历史上最大的交易通行格局,
是人类文明中最大的交通系统和贸易有关项目,
也是当先最广范围的最大的全部经济网络。差距的社会-种族和政治实体。由于一大半的国家仍处于发展阶段,
仍有丰硕的长空释放他们的经济潜力;如果是那样的话,
它很可能是本世纪最重大的经济腾飞布置,
因为中国在过去30年的经济奇迹。即便是出于种族、宗教和历史原因,
蕴涵了众多敌对群体–印度(佛教、穆斯林,孔雀王朝)和巴基斯坦、犹太人(伊斯兰教)和阿拉伯人、伊朗(波斯王朝)和阿拉伯世界(伊斯兰)等,
而且往往是区域争辩的闪点, 如同近来的叙莱切斯特和 ISIS 的情事亦然,
中国如同孵化的成功的 B&R
倡议的如果互赢的商业利益通过交易可以摆平甚至当先的差距,
导致一个由许多两样的国家和社团日常由经贸和交易关系组成和谐和强盛的 B&R
区。中国将不得不投入大批量的财力入股, 面临风险, 因为在SREB/MSR
的征程上,有那个易受侵凌的地点和瓶颈点,
并期望有可能出现低甚至负的投资回报, 因为不少 B & R 国家是高度 challenged
地点为社会经济进步。中国对一箭双雕实力超越文化历史差异的设想的开朗态度的基本功,
就如依照中国本身在社会主义背景下爆发的经济成功的经历,
那是缺少宗教作为社会政治因素.那项中国不负众望的品类, 在那么些宗教是首要的,
如若不是决定社会因素的地带, 还有待验证。

This B&R co-prosperity economic circle contains some mindstaggering
data: it includes 60+ nations, 63 % of global population (44 Billion),
24% Global economy, and 30% of global GDP. China envisions that B&R will
become the largest trade thru-way in human history, the largest
infra-structure in transport system and trade related projects in human
civilization, and the biggest integrative economic network that span
through the widest spectrum of diverse socio-ethnic and political
entities. Since most of the nations in B&R are still in developing
stage, there are still plenty of rooms to unleash their economic
potentials; should that be the case, it may well be the most significant
economic development plan in this Century, after China’s economic
miracles during the past three decades. Even though B&R regions includes
many rival groups due to ethnic, religious and historical reasons–India
and Pakistan, Jews and Arabs, Iran and the Arab world…etc., and are
often flash points of regional conflicts, as in the current case of
Syria and ISIS, China seems to hatch the success of the B&R initiative
on the assumption the win-win commercial interests through trades can
overcome and even transcend differences between rival regional fractions
leading to a harmonious and prosper B&R region composed of many
different nations and groups commonly bonded by commercial and trade
ties. China will have to put in large amount of capital investment, to
face high risk as there many vulnerable spots and bottle necks points
along the SREB/MSR paths, and to expect the possible of low and even
negative investment returns as many of the B&R countries are highly
challenged places for socio-economic developments. China’s basis on an
assumed optimism of B&R initiative on economic power to override
cultural-historical difference seemed to be based on China’s own
experience in economic success happening within a socialist context
which lacks religion as a socio-political factor. Such project of
China’s success onto B&R region where religions are an major, if not
dominating social factor, is yet to be tested.

出于 B 和 R
贸易节点正在创设并由此交易媒介、高速火车、机场、现代港口和电信系统开展接二连三,
将有成百上千现有的集镇升高为重点的国际贸易主题;这几个骨干将由此交易和服务,
将数十或几十个连接起来, 作为经济基础结构来作育那个 B 和 R
球体。这几个新的都会将有以下功用: 提供设施, 以增强国际贸易, 如运输, 物流,
金融, 数据, 银行, 会计, 翻译, 法律劳动等,
并在同一时间成为区域主导前行辐射影响在方圆的区域。
那些城市将不可防止地引发来自 B 和 R
社区及其它地域的正规化规范人士提供各类劳动。别的,
这个都会的外籍人员也将渐次树立起来, 例如, 中国自35年前开端对外开放以来,
在巴黎和华盛顿慢慢建立了国际侨民。除了这几个外籍人士社区之外,
还要求为她们随同家属提供日常服务,
如校园、商店、娱乐场面、餐馆、诊所和宗派场合, 以满意他们的现实性须要,
以便有一个安宁的外籍社区协理更多的区域间贸易服务。

As the B&R trading nodes are building up and are connecting by trade
vectors, high speed trains, airports, modern harbours and
telecommunication systems, there will be the upgrading of many existing
towns or cities into major international trading hubs; these hubs will
number several tens or dozens interconnected through trades and services
as the economic infrastructure to shape this B&R sphere. These new
cities will have the following functions: provide facilities to enhance
international trading such as transport, logistics, finance, data,
banking, accounting, translation, legal services …etc. and at the same
time become the centre of regional development radiating influence in
surrounding areas. These cities will inevitable draw specialized
professionals from B&R communities and beyond to provide various
services. Also there will be a gradual build up of these B&R expats in
these cities such as the gradual building up of international expats in
Shanghai and Guangzhou when China began to open up since 35 years ago.
Along with these expat communities, there are need to provide daily
services to them as well as their dependents, such as school, shop,
recreation, restaurants, clinic and religious venues catering to their
specific needs in order to have a stable expat community to support the
increasing volumes of inter-regional trade services.

鉴于跨区域移徙, B 和 R 侨民社区预测将净增,
那个外籍社区和主人翁社会之间的动态互动将暴发长远的文化-宗教影响。本文将对那种情景展开测算,
并揣测一些可能的结果。本文所用的基本假使有三种:
一是一石二鸟促进和拉动理论认为,
人类的迁移形式紧如若由经济力量塑造的–经济条件较差的地带会促使人们离开富裕地区若是有越多的机会取得更好的收入,
富裕地区将引发人们来得到更好的经济机会和劳务。 其次:
人是宗教影响和散播的重点活动主体,
大致拥有的宗派传教活动。宗教内容必要经过信徒的化身来发挥,
以一种真实的艺术来传达宗教的新闻, 以吸引新的信教者,
因为宗教不仅仅是一套理学思想, 而是一种生活方法, 需求在生命形式。第三:
由于传教士可能会挑衅当地的宗教信仰连串,
像传教士工作这么的故意传教活动或者会加重社会文化紧张。 无意的布道,
如国外侨民社区的存在等宗教信仰的碌碌无为证人,
只要这一群体不打乱东道社会近年来的社会宗教动态,
就足以推进社会容忍和多样性。 基于这么些假诺, 本文提出, “B 和 R”
倡议将迎来一个更具宗教多样性的环境, 增添宗教间的忐忑关系,
并挑衅中国对商业利益的比方, 那将代表了区域间的野史、文化和宗教差别,
经济关键可以摆平社会-宗教紧张关系, 那是中国负责人所拥有的传统观念。然则,
最初的探究已经明确地标明, 穆斯林极端主义者是由意识形态造成的,
而不是占便宜上的–贫穷–原因。 中国对繁荣和谐的经济开发区的愿景,
可能会因特定语境下宗教动态的错综复杂而暴发一般的混杂和相对的结局。随着满世界政治秩序的持续波动,
b 和 r 倡议可能须要常常开展重点调整中国国内的相关移民

With the projected increase of B&R expat communities due to
inter-regional migration, there will be profound cultural-religious
implications between the dynamic interactions of these expat communities
and hosting societies. This paper will speculate on such scenario and
conjecture on some of the possible outcomes. There are three basic
presuppositions used in this paper: Firstly the economic push and pull
theory which suggests that that human migration patterns are largely
shaped by economic forces–areas with poor economic conditions will push
people to leave for rich areas where there are more opportunities for
better incomes, and rich areas will attract people to come for better
economic opportunities and services. Secondly: human being is the main
active agent for religious influences and transmission in almost all
religious proselytising activities. Religious content needs to be
expressed through the embodiment of the believers to convey the
religious message in an authentic way to attract new followers as
religion is more than a set of philosophical ideas but rather a way of
live that needs to be demonstrated in a life form. Thirdly: Intentional
proselytising activities such as missionary work may contribute to the
escalation of socio-cultural tensions as missionaries may challenge the
local religious believe system. Unintentional proselytising such as
passive witness of religious faith like the presence of an expat
community may promote social tolerance and diversities so long as this
group does not upset the current socio-religious dynamics of the hosting
society. Based on this these presuppositions, this paper suggests that
the B&R initiative will usher in a more religious diversity environment,
increase inter and intra religious tensions, and challenge the China’s
assumptions on commercial interests that would supersede inter-regional
historical, cultural and religious differences, and that economic ties
can overcome social-religious tensions, a conventional belief held by
Chinese policy makers. However, initial researches have already strongly
suggested that Muslim extreme fundamentalists are caused more by
ideological than by economic–poverty–reasons. China’s vision of a
prosper and harmonious B&R economic zone may general mix and perhaps
opposing consequences depending on the complexity of the religious
dynamics of a particular context. With the increase fluctuating of
global political order, B&R initiative may need constant major
readjustment B&R related Migrants within China

The economic push and pull factors in human migration has well been
documented in China as more than 150 million China’s internal migrants
are moving form mostly impoverished homeland to prosper regions, from
rural areas to urban cities, and from regional cities to metropolitans,
to seek better economic opportunities. Similar patterns are also
observed in Eurasia as migrant workers such as Filipinos in Gulf States,
Indonesians in Hong Kong, Turkish in Germany, or Vietnamese in Taiwan.
Almost all of these migrants are induced by higher incomes in hosting
nations than in their home countries. The flows are often dynamic
responding to economic changes. For example, as China’s rural areas are
improving in economic opportunities since about five years ago, there
has been a decrease in flow of rural population into the Pearl Delta
areas for factory works, and increase flow of population to the second
tier cities as economic tempo is picking up in those cities while the
major urban canters are slowing down the developmental pace. With the
B&R initiatives, one may expect those cities and regions in China
directly benefitted by B&R will attract domestic skilled labours and
professionals from all over China building up B&R related projects.
Those cities will mostly be the Southern coastal provinces and
South-western boarding provinces for the Maritime Belt and the
North-western Provinces for the Silk Road as illustrated shown by the
following picture

http://www.postwesternworld.com/2015/03/10/chinas-pivot-eurasia/
As for domestic migrants, they will mostly be specialized professionals
engaging in trade, commerce, logistic, telecommunication, finance and
transports, as most of these B&R gateway cities, such as those on
Maritime harbour port cities and bordering region cities, will serve as
commercial and transport hub from the China side for OBOR. There may
perhaps be many construction works for building of infrastructures such
as railway and ports, but these construction workers will leave once the
constructions are completed and not leaving any long-term
socio-religious impacts. However the commercial related domestic
professionals drawn from all over the nation, along with their
dependants, will probably stay on to keep these commercial hubs in
function. These internal migrant professionals will most likely be drawn
from major international commercial centres in China such as Shanghai,
Shenzhen and Beijing, where a vast pool of skilled professionals are
readily available.
The second major pool of migrants will be those expats related with B&R
countries. One may expected to see increasing expat populations from
ASEAN countries aggregated in Yunnan, Central and West Asians in
Xinjiang, Central Europeans in Xian, and many others such as Russians,
Iranians, Thais, Indians, Turks, Hungarians..etc. in cities where trade
opportunities are available. Just as one had seen the gradual building
up of Japanese, American and European expat communities in Shanghai and
Beijing when China began the trading with the West since 25 years ago,
and the increase of Korean expat in Northeast China as China-Korean
trade increases. This group of B&R will significantly increase the
international dimension as well as representation of the current expats
in China who are predominantly represented by Westerners (American,
European, Australians) Japanese and Korean.The third group of new
migrants may perhaps be the professionals drawn from overseas Chinese
population as many of them speak Chinese and come from the Chinese
Diaspora communities; and perhaps most may be drawn from the vast pool
of Mainland students who had studies and worked in overseas with
international trading experience and are now seeking opportunities back
in China. They may have a variety of residency or citizenship along with
different relational contacts in China. They are neither entirely
foreigners nor local Chinese and often form their own overseas returnee
communities in China. May have Chinese nationals as spouses and often
may not be part of the expat community of their citizenship.

B&R migrants in China: religious dynamics and interactions

All three groups will have their different cultural-religious values and
interact with local society in various ways. For the first group of
migrants from major commercial Chinese cities, they carry new ideas and
secular values to these mostly second tier cities which are more
traditional and conservative in social values. For example, a Shanghai
accountant will carry with him or her not only the international
auditing standard, but also the social cultural that favours
international commercial activities such as meritocracy than despotism,
gender equality or liberal gender relations. Strain in cultural
difference will be an growing edge for those hosting cities to strive
for development. The potential religious tension would mostly likely be
in Muslim dominated areas of the North Western regions where Islamic
influence are strong to perhaps oppose non Islamic social values such as
the more casual gender relations popular in coastal regions of China
where Western cultural influence are strongest. Should that be the case,
these Muslim dominated areas in North-western part of China would have
to embrace a more diverse society including the acceptances of the more
liberal social values which may contradict the traditional Islamic
social values in order to sustain the B&R operation on China side. Or
some of the Muslims will find these new domestic migrants as a threat
challenging their traditional religious values, and may find various
means to oppose such new incursion of social values leading to social
unrest.
As for the second group, regardless of where they come from, they will
usually bring along with them their own religious culture into the new
hosting Chinese cities which are officially secular or non-religious, as
B&R region contains the majority of the worlds’ Muslim, Buddhist ,
Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism, Zoroastrian as well as the Orthodox
Christian populations. It is also a place where most of the world’s
relgions are originated. Just as the Muslim traders since the 8th
Centuries built up the Muslim community in Asia for generations, these
new B&R expat communities will stay in those gateway Chinese cities for
prolong period of time necessity for trade . They will bring with them
their dependents, their religious practice and their life styles. A
recent example will be the large expat Muslim communities in Yiwu along
with their own schools, shops, mosques and Arabic speaking community.
These Chinese B&R related cities will have to learn to make provisions
for these new communities along with their perhaps exotic religious
practices. It will be an eye opener for many local Chinese who has
little exposure to world religions and some Chinese may even be drawn as
devotees of these religions, just like many in US and Europe are drawn
into Hari Krishna or the Unification Church (the Moonies) in the 1960s
and 1970s.

There is also a high possibility that the new B&R expat groups in China
may also escalate the already strained inter-ethnic relations, such as
the Turkish merchants in Uyghur dominated Xinjiang may promote the
pan-Turkic sentiment which will indirectly lend support to the East
Turkistan Independent Movement challenging the sovereign claim of China
over Xinjiang. Similarly the Jingpo or Dai expat from Myanmar in Yunnan
may bring along with them their own ethnic-political complications from
the tension between Shan or Kachin Autonomous States with the Myanmar
authorities into China which may further destabilizing the already
fragile China border regions with Myanmar and Laos. After all, the
Jingpo ethnic minorities in Yunnan often identify themselves with their
ethnic Jingpo (Kachin) across the border sharing common language,
tradition and religions for centuries; many Jingpo people in China also
serves in the Kachin Independent Army in Myanmar. One can find many of
such examples as many of China’s ethnic minorities have strong ties with
their ethnic counterparts across the China border with increasing
autonomous or ethno-nationalistic sentiments often enhanced by religion.

For the last major group–Chinese overseas returnees, contemporary
research by Yang Fenggang suggested that a high percentage, as much as
30%, of them seemed to embrace Christian faith while they were living
aboard. Such high percentage of Protestant converts among the returnees
are also cause the increasing number of non-registered urban churches
established in major Chinese cities patron by these Chinese returnees.
Many hold foreign citizenship or residency and technically not Chinese
citizens and are in rather grey areas in terms of religious
administration by the Chinese authorities as they may have spouse who
are not foreign passport holders yet they may worship together in a
technically religious venue for foreigners, and often not formally
registered. Contrary to many of the local non-registered groups by
national are often harassed by local authorities, these new urban based
non-registered Christian groups are supported by rich and powerful
patrons who are well connected not only with senior authorities but also
international religious and commercial networks who serves as a
political umbrella to protest these groups from harassments by local
authorities. Their presence may easily cause socio-religious tension as
their religious gatherings may draw many Chinese, often colleagues or
business partners of these religious returnees, to join Christianity,
and some local Christians may be drawn to these powerful elite
communities for protection from harassment by the authority. If that
will be the case, there will be some forms of Foreign Concession zone in
China’s religion landscape, envy by national Christian groups and
resented by local authorities–a situation that the authority may need
to address in future.

Intra B&R migrations: religious dynamics and interactions

As mentioned earlier in this paper, B&R region contains the largest
population of many important world and ethnic religions. Although China
may be the least religious nation, almost all other B&R nations are very
religious with some even embrace religious values as their national
policies, such as the case of Indonesia and Iran. Also there is a
growing tend to have increasing religious influences to foster national
or ethnic identity especially towards the more conservative branches on
national governance and identity, such as in the case of Turkey of
escalating Turkic identity, India of increasing Hinduism as national
identity, Orthodox belief as the de facto Russian national identity, to
name a few. There are also the emergence of extreme religious groups
imposing religious rules political governance, such as the Taliban
movement and the ISIS. Therefore, with the increasing intra B&R migrant
populations, one would expect the new socio-religious challenges from
B&R expats to various hosting B&R nations. These challenges may range
from merely amusement of observing exotic religious practices by the
locals in a tolerance society, to offensive behaviours in the eyes of
the locals, such polytheistic images and worships in a puritanical
religious society such as Hinduism practice in Saudi Arabia, to
escalation of inter-regional rivals, such as Iranian Shiite in
predominate Sunni’s in UAE.
Also some of the interregional tensions, especially those involved with
already tensed ethnic and religious revival between countries such as
Iran and Saudi Arabia, or Pakistan and India, may also be escalated
through the presence of rival expat communities, as these countries are
competing for regional influence in political, religious and in ethnic
dominancy. Social tension may also increase as the presence of some
expat communities could empower, even unintentionally, local minority
groups to challenge the ruling regime, such as Iranian merchants may
encourage the Shiite in Yemen Shiites to oppose the Sunni ruling tribes,
the Kurds in Turkey, the Tamils in Sir Lanka…etc. There are also the
rise religious identity overshadowing national boundaries such as the
co-ordinated demonstrates of Muslims in India, Bangladesh, Malaysia and
Thailand on 25th November, 2016 to support their co-religious Rohingya
in Myanmar.
Currently there are already countless religious-ethnics flash points in
Eurasian Continent, with many dated back for centuries, which are
currently accentuated by the rise of religious fundamentalism mixed with
emergence of nationalism or ethno-centrism. The basic tenet of B&R
co-prosperity sphere is based on the assumption that trade and
commercial interests will override and even overcome the traditional
religious-ethnic tension among rival groups or rival nations. However
often one observe just the opposite in B&R regional rivals is taken
place, such as Israel and the surrounding Arab nations, or
India-Pakistan in Kashmir, that these intensive conflicts are contrary
to any sound economic reasoning. It seems that this China led B&R
initiative could bring socio-political harmony to this ancient Eurasian
land through trade and economic development, or may usher in an new era
of conflict intensification by inter-mixing rival groups is yet to be
seen.

1960

天鹅绒之路(Silk Road)1

1954

天鹅绒之路是何许?

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那条东西通路,将中国、西域与阿拉伯、阿拉伯海紧密联系在一道。

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涤纶之路(韩文:die
Seidenstrasse),简称为丝路,最早来自德意志联邦共和国地理学家费迪南·冯·李希霍芬
(费迪·南德(Ferd·inand) von Richthofen)1877年问世的《中国——我的旅行成果》(China,
Ergebnisse eigener Reisen)。
丝绸之路平常是指欧亚北边的商路,与南边的茶马古道形成相比较,金朝时张骞和后唐时班超出使西域开辟的以长安(今莱比锡)、德阳为起源,经安徽、西藏,到中亚、西亚,并联合巴伦支海各国的新大陆通道。那条道路也被叫作“陆路涤纶之路”,以界别日后其它两条冠以“涤纶之路”名称的交通路线。因为由那条路西运的货品中以天鹅绒制品的熏陶最大,故得此名。其主导走向定于两汉时期。
广义的天鹅绒之路指从上古上马陆续形成的,遍及欧亚大陆甚至席卷北非和东非在内的远距离商业贸易和文化沟通线路的总称。除上述路线之外,还包罗约前5世纪形成的草野棉布之路,中古初年形成,在西汉说明巨大功效的水道天鹅绒之路和与西南天鹅绒之路同时出现,在宋初代表西北涤纶之路成为旅途互换通道的南方天鹅绒之路。
即便如此涤纶之路是沿线各国共同推动经贸发展的产物,但广大人以为,中国的张骞三遍出使西域,开辟了众人沟通的新篇章。从此,这条路子就改为了“国道”,各国大使、商人沿着张骞开通的征途,进行交易。那条东西通路,将中国、西域与阿拉伯、威德尔海紧密联系在共同。经过多少个世纪的不止大力,天鹅绒之路向北伸展到了咸海。广义上丝路的东段已经抵达了高丽国、日本,西段至高卢雄鸡、荷兰。通过水路还可达意国、埃及,成为南美洲和亚洲、北美洲各国经济文化互换的情谊之路。

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天鹅绒之路是野史上横贯欧亚大陆的贸易交通线,在历史上促进了欧亚非各国和中国的友好往来。

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古时一代,在密西西比河流域、两河流域、印度河流域和恒河流域之北的草地上,有着一线由众多不连贯的小范围交易路线大体衔接而成的草地之路。那或多或少曾经被沿路诸多的考古发现所评释。这条路就是最早的丝绸之路的雏形。
初期的天鹅绒之路上并不是以丝绸为重大交易物资,在公元前15世纪左右,中国经纪人就曾经出入塔克拉玛干沙漠边缘,购买产自现云南地区的和田玉石,同时售卖海贝等沿海特产,同中亚地区开展小范围贸易往来。而良种马及其他符合长途运输的动物也开始频频被人们所利用,令广大的交易文化沟通成为可能。比如阿拉伯半岛的平时应用,耐渴、耐旱、耐饿的单峰骆驼,在公元前11世纪便用于饭馆运输。而分散在亚欧大陆的雅利安人和斯基泰人据传在公元前31世纪左右即开头饲养马。双峰骆驼则在不久后也被采用在买卖旅行中。其它,欧亚大陆内地是广大的草原和肥沃的土地,对于游牧民族和商队运输的家畜而言可以随时各处安定下来,就近补给水、食品和燃料。那样一支商队、旅行队或武力可以在沿线各强国没有注意到他俩的留存或刺激敌意的景况下,举行漫长,持久而路途遥远的旅行。

1、月氏:(yuèzhī或ròuzhī)为公元前3世纪至公元1世纪一个中华民族名称。早期以游牧为生,住在今中国的河北附近,并时常与匈奴产生争执,到后来被匈奴攻击,一分为二:西迁至伊犁的,被称为大月氏;居留于中国青海及江苏的祁连山西北麓前后的,被号称小月氏。那时,月支初阶提升,逐渐具有国家的雏型。由于大月氏位处于天鹅绒之路,控制着东西贸易,使它逐步变得强大。《唐代书•西羌传》记载:月氏“被服饮食言语略与羌同”,表明月氏的言语很可能属于汉希腊语系。

2、祆(xiān)教:即琐罗亚斯德教是风靡于秦代波斯(今伊朗)及中亚等地的宗教,中国史称祆教、火祆教、拜火教。相传为公元前六世纪琐罗亚斯德创。波斯萨珊王朝奉为国教。其教创善、恶二元论,以火为善神的代表。南北朝时传入中华后又称“火祆教”或“祆教”。金朝曾一度于长安建祠盛行,并立官专管。
武宗反佛后渐废不传。琐罗亚斯德教是伊斯兰教诞生以前中东和西亚最有震慑的宗派,北宋波斯帝国的国教,曾被佛教徒贬称为“拜火教”。琐罗亚斯德教的佛法一般认为是神学上的一神论和文学上的二元论。琐罗亚斯德教的经文重即使《阿维斯塔》,意为知识、谕令、或经典,通称《波斯古经》。

至于天鹅绒之路

简介
人类历史在相连搬迁中前行,随之暴发的是一再的商品交流,以及技巧和沉思的互换。那样的通信与贸易之路在欧亚大陆上复杂,在历史上逐步形成了大家今天所称的丝绸之路。丝绸之路覆盖着路上和海上交通,来自各类地区的人们在此沿线举办着天鹅绒与任何货物的交易。海上丝路将东方与西方以航线连接起来,是广义上的棉布之路的重中之重组成部分。海上之路曾经是交易香料的基本点渠道,后来被众人以香水之路而知晓。
然而那一个庞大的网络承载的不只是商品的贸易。频仍的位移和人数的混杂引起了文化、思想、文化和信仰的互换,给亚欧人的野史和文化带来了源远流长的影响。在沿线城市上那样的想想文化调换不断发展,逐步形成了几个教育与文化主题,吸引着行客们踏上那条商路。自然科学、艺术、艺术学以及手工艺和技巧在此地被分享与传播。随之,语言、宗教和知识也在独家发展中互相暴发了震慑。
实在“天鹅绒之路”只是现代的一种叫法。在其长期的历史中,那条古老的道路并没有一个适中的名字。十九世纪后期,德意志科学家,费迪南·冯·李希霍芬,把这些商道命名为Die
Seidenstrasse (丝绸之路),神秘且令人浮想联翩。

丝绸的打造与交易
天鹅绒是将蚕茧中领到的蛋白纤维编织而制成的纺织品。丝绸打造技术来源于北齐中华,公元前约两千七百年。作为价值极高的手工制品,棉布被中国朝廷保留为御用服装、家纺、横幅以及其余外交赠品。西藏省发现的公元前三到四世纪的古墓里出土了一批卓越的丝绸,包涵锦缎,纱和绢绣,以最古老的全体的丝战胜装。
天鹅绒的生育进程被严苛保密了约三千年。当时朝廷对民用向别人败露天鹅绒生产进度的处罚是死刑。中国在制丝业上的占据并不曾使其消费市场局限于中国。一方面,棉布作为外交贡品流入他国。另一方面,丝绸贸易也直接优秀频仍:开头仅是向邻国销售,而后推广到更远的国家。到大顺(公元前206年到公元220年)时,涤纶已变成了炎黄的首要出口产品。近日埃及、北蒙古等地都出土了中国在汉期间的纺织品。
公元前一世纪,棉布传入休斯敦帝国。涤纶被视为颇具异国风情的奢侈品而变得颇为流行,甚至使得加拉加斯帝国颁发诏令以决定其价格。天鹅绒的风靡一贯被持续到中世纪。当时棉布既是皇家使用的头名面料,也是财政的首要根源。拜占庭对此涤纶打造的严俊法令规定也体现了天鹅绒的优异地方。别的,拜占庭教堂对于丝制时装与室内装饰需要也非常大。因而,天鹅绒成为了亚洲至远东的商路发展的早期引力之一。
至于制丝技术的学识在立即是老大可贵的。即便中国宫廷竭力保密制作方法,那么些秘密依然在中华外传来开来。在公元前6世纪,此项技术率先流传到了印度和东瀛,接着传播到波斯王国,最终到天国。在公元6世纪,历国学家普罗科匹厄斯描述道:大致在同样时代
[公元前550年],印度的片段僧侣来到了波士顿帝国。他们说服了查士丁尼大帝休斯敦不应有再从波斯进货天鹅绒,并达成了她们从中国带回来的养蚕缫丝的技术传授给埃及开罗的缔约,以便布拉格然后驳回从其敌国波斯或者其余任何国家购买丝绸。那个僧侣们说以前她俩在一个印度人平日到访的地域,Serinda,完全领悟了创造棉布的主意。别的,僧侣们对持续追问试探他们的天子说,蚕是丝绸的制作者,大自然在敦促他们不断创造天鹅绒。虽说无法直接将火蚕运输过来,不过蚕的繁育却很简单。一批蚕卵可以孵化出众两只幼虫,而人们只需在孵化后用粪便盖住幼虫作为保暖,直至它们成长为成虫。僧侣们分享了那个新闻之后,他们与皇上已毕了约定并重返了印度。当她们将蚕卵带回拜占庭,教其上述养殖格局,将蚕卵孵化成幼虫,以树叶来喂养。赫尔辛基帝国的制丝艺术之路就此开头。

天鹅绒之外:天鹅绒之路商品的多样性
即便丝绸贸易是中亚商道的最早的催化剂之一,那仅仅是东、西方之间交易的普遍商品中的一类。其余货品蕴含天鹅绒之外的纺织品、调味品、粮食、蔬菜和鲜果、动物皮草、工具、木工、五金、宗教物品、艺术品、宝石等等。
在中世纪,丝绸之路初阶风靡,人们的来往更为多,直至19世纪,人们还在使用那条商道。那不光表明涤纶之路的重大,还证实其弹性和适应性可以满意不断向上转移的社会急需。这几个商道也并没有沿着任何特定道路

商人们往往自由选取通往北欧、中东、中亚地区和远东两个地面的例外交通路线。除陆路之外,商人们还足以挑选从中国和东东亚,经由印度洋到北美洲、印度和近东的海上丝绸之路。
综观历史,依照时间的延迟和地缘政治条件的变通,天鹅绒之路也直接发展。例如,布加勒斯特帝国的经纪人们为了避开经过拉各斯之敌区帕提亚领土,选择了向南出发,经过高加索地区,途经琼州海峡的路线。相似地,中世纪初期,频仍的商业往来暴发在翻过中亚的河道运输网上。与此同时,那条河道中的水位时而上升时而下跌,有时干涸,这条交易之路也应和的转换。
海上贸易是当下另一个极其紧要的世界贸易网络。其最资深的用处是香料运输,来自印尼摩鹿加群岛(以香料岛之名而名高天下)的大红袍、胡椒、姜、丁香和豆蔻须要满世界市场。故海上天鹅绒之路又被号称‘香料之路’。商人经由天鹅绒之路,交易纺织品、木制品、宝石、金属制品、香料、木材和藏红花。棉布之路超越十五万英里,从扶桑西海岸,经过中国海岸线、东南亚和孔雀之国一向到中东和死海。海上涤纶之路连接了阿拉伯半岛,美索不达米亚和印度河流域的,其历史足以追溯到几千年前。在中世纪初,来自阿拉伯半岛的海员们开发并了超过亚得里亚海直到太平洋的新航线,海上丝绸之路网络也为此扩展。实际上,早在八世纪,阿拉伯与中华时期的海上贸易畅通已开头确立。
航海术、天教育学和造船术的腾飞完毕了远程的海上旅行。位于海上天鹅绒之路沿岸的都会因港口而恢宏起来,如桑给巴尔,亚历·山大(Aler·ander),累西腓,和果阿。这么些城市经常有来来往往的商贩和船员以及广大的集市,也是货物、思想、语言和笃信的置换的基本,因此成为了财物的聚众地。15世纪中期,葡萄牙探险家达伽马,在好望角周围航行,那是南美洲海员初次到场东东亚海上贸易。到了16、17
世纪,天鹅绒之路和它的盈利富饶的交易成为了葡萄牙、荷兰王国和英帝国时期可以竞争的要点。那一个殖民国家给他俩攻克的海上之路沿岸港口带来了财富和维持。他们有效治理了海上贸易通道,授权当地权力机关对此急需巨大的舶来品的占据举行管制,并对准商船征收了不可估计的税款。
上边地图显示了各个不一样的大陆与海上商道。来自世界各地的商户靠着那个交通网络运输交易着连串丰盛的商品。商人的驼队日常拔取在局地路段停留。他们或稍作歇息、补充用品,或留下扎营做买卖。那样的停留点遍布整个丝绸之路,沿线城市和口岸因此百废具兴。
涤纶之路既活跃又有渗透性。商人们与土著人做买卖,将外来商品卖给当地人的同时也购入并带走各地的土产品。丝绸之路不仅仅助长了商户的物质财富与货物的多样性,还推进了在天鹅绒之路上沿线的知识、语言、思想的沟通。

交换与对话
恐怕在有着的天鹅绒之路的角色中,最有历史意义的即其对两样地段的人们相互交换往来的促进功能。在实践范围上,商人们若要成功地进行谈判就务须学习他们所经国家的语言和乡规民约习惯。因而文化沟通是物质沟通的一个紧要元素。其它,许多行客为了体验沿线城市的知识和文化沟通而踏上了那条冒险之路。
翻过天鹅绒之路的沿线区域分享了不错、艺术、教育学以及手工艺和技巧的学识。同时,语言、宗教和学识也在独家的上进中相互影响。通过丝绸之路在世界范围内取得传播的最知名的技能包含造纸术以及印刷术。类似地,由于得到了行客的学习和传播,整个中亚地区的灌溉系统普遍具有相似特性。这么些行客不仅带走和传唱自己的文化,同时也接受了分化社会的地头文化技术。
在公元前2世纪,将军张骞开辟了第三个从中国至西方的天鹅绒之路。说起那位英雄,比起贸易开拓者,他更是一位外交官。汉武帝在公元前139年,联盟国外,以抗击中国的祖传仇敌—匈奴。张骞被派往北边时,被匈奴抓获并被禁锢起来。十三年后,他越狱并逃回了中华,给汉武帝讲述了拉长的经验及细节并做了有的详实的报告。在公元前119年,汉武帝又派张骞拜访邻国,建立一个最初从中国到中亚的途径。
宗教和求知成为了人们沿线的远足的心劲。到印度取经后将圣文带回中国的和尚们在半路书写的旅行日记,近来是有关天鹅绒之路的第一考据。玄奘在629至公元到654年的25年中间写下的日志不仅拥有巨大的野史价值,同时也启示了16世纪神魔小说的落地。“西游记”,即那样一部中国太古的经文之作。在中世纪,北美洲的和尚胜任外交和宗教使团,访问西部。Giovanni
da Pian del Carpini在1245年至1247年由教皇Innocent
四世派出访问蒙古;随后,佛兰德方济各会修士威尔iam of
Rubruc在1253年至1255年由法国沙皇路易九世派出,再度做客蒙古汗国。其中最知名的应属威金沙萨探险家马可(英文名:)·波罗。他的游览约于1271和1292中间,长达20多年。他谢世后其书写的掠影在北美洲变得极受欢迎。
翻过整个欧亚大陆的门径是宗教的流传基础。伊斯兰教是丝绸之路沿途上宗教传播一个例子。在阿富汗巴米扬、在中华齐云山以及在印度尼西亚婆罗浮屠都留有伊斯兰教艺术圣地和寺院东正教,东正教,印度教,琐罗亚斯德教和一神教以一般的不二法门传播。行客们接到他们所收受到的文化,并将那个不一样的知识分享给协调的亲生。如此,印度教和伊斯兰被经纪人们通过海上涤纶之路从印度和阿拉伯引入到印尼和马来亚。

行进在涤纶之路上
天鹅绒之路本身的迈入基于人们在其区域的交通往来。在中世纪,马或骆驼是商队在陆路物流上的超人方式。棉布之路上的酒店是特地为了大型长途旅行商队所设计的。那几个旅社对于那条路线上人和商品的畅通发挥了至关紧要的意义。通过对土耳其到中华这一段天鹅绒之路的观赛可得,这么些旅舍不仅为游客提供了可口的饭菜和平安的歇息地觉得未来的路途做准备,同时也提供了与地面市场互换货物、贸易和采购地点产品并与别的商户们互换的阳台,促进商户们相互沟通文化、语言和切磋。
乘胜涤纶之路发展壮大,沿线的生意机会更是多。酒店饭馆日渐其需,从10世纪早先,酒馆酒馆的制造遍布了总体中亚地区,平素继承至19世纪。这些饭店宾馆网,从中国延长至印度次大陆、伊朗、高加索、土耳其、北非、俄罗斯和东欧国家。其中一些酒馆饭店至今尚存。酒店旅社的岗位是依据丝绸之路上每日的里程来分布的。那样商人和其余行客可以防止数天数夜停留在危机重重的丝绸之路上,并珍贵珍重货物的安全。平均每30至40公里就会有一些酒馆酒店,周边环境维护较好。
正史上商户在漫漫的海上贸易旅程中面临着不一致的挑衅。至中世纪以来,航海术,更加是造船术的前进,提升了海上旅行的汉中。在中世纪,对船员们最大的恐吓之一就是缺乏饮用水。海上沿线天鹅绒之路港口的升华,不仅为商户贸易提供做买卖的时机,而且保险了淡水供应。商船所面临的另一种风险是海盗。船上利润富饶的商品往往变成海盗的靶子。
涤纶之路遗产
在19世纪,考古学家、地理学家以及一些热心的探险者踏上了天鹅绒的探险之路。来自法兰西、大英帝国、德意志联邦共和国、俄联邦和日本,这几个商量者通过中国西部,今位于西藏的塔克拉玛干沙漠,沿着丝路追寻古迹。因他们的孝敬,方今有成百上千考古学上的觉察和大度的学术研商。那几个发现使得丝路之历史又再度挑起了世界的关心。
现在,许多历史建筑和回忆碑、标志着丝路通道的饭馆旅馆、港口和城市尚存。差别但相互关系的学问、语言、习俗和宗教在丝路上提升了上千年,恰是历史悠久的涤纶之路的投射。商人们及过多见仁见智国籍的游人的过往不仅在商业调换上,而且在知识融为一体的进程中,带来了持续并广泛的熏陶。从最初的追究阶段初始,丝绸之路渐渐成为横跨欧亚大陆上,促进社会的多变的推动力。

相关链接:
UNESCO Integral Study of the Silk Roads, Roads of
Dialogue

Recommendations for transnational heritage corridors of Silk Roads site
nomination

Caravanserais
History of civilizations of Central
Asia

**
蓝草音乐、爵士乐都是民歌复兴、摇滚乐摇滚的首要来源和分层,他们的涉及既是亲兄弟,也有互相的影响。
** 那块之间的涉及相比复杂,我不是搞得很精通。

Conclusion

中国官员的 B 和 R 将迎来一个更连贯的欧亚大陆经济领域,
它恐怕进步变成一个引领全球经济的经济实体,
尤其是当世界两大经济体的走强时, 欧盟正遭到英美出口的挑衅。
随着新的经济机会正在出现, B 和 R
区域贸易的充实也将造成区域内和内部的人口迁移扩张。 这一个新移民,
更加是发源其余 b 和 r 国民的人, 他们的思想意识大多是宗教的,
包含世界上最大的社会风气宗教的人口, 无论是南齐要么当代。
那一个新移徙者将无意地将宗教轻习俗习惯带入其主人社会,
并将增加社会和宗教的多样性, 并有助于增强地点人口的社会容忍度。 可是,
有意传教的传教士, 传统上根据商人建立的交易路线, 或加上区域间的商业活动,
将加码当地的宗派动态。 那些有意的 proselytisers 将招收新的皈依者,
从其他迷信或分裂的温和派分支在相同信仰中,
导致更加多的社会宗教紧张关系的牵头社会,
创制越多的极其或新的宗教团体社区常常对该地社区遗憾。此外,
中国民众广泛紧缺宗教经验, 由此宗教敏感性,
可能会对堵住中国和美利哥关系发展的国家造成负面心情。由此, B 和 R
倡议将推动一个越来越多样化的社会-宗教社会, 那或者会助长更高层次的社会容忍,
从而导致一个更和谐的社会, 或者可能使曾经失魂撂倒的社会-宗教紧张形势升级,
导致破坏性的社会和区域差距。至于中国的新经济蓬勃的愿景,
以取代最近的社会-宗教历史的残破破碎的和不发达的 b 和 r 地区尚有待验证。

对华夏的话,
经济腾飞是一项高风险、高资产、经济回报不确定的此举。宗教层面将加码这几个宏伟项目的高风险程度和资金因素。由于美国对中国在印度洋的短路,
中国的原油供应安全, 巨额外汇储备的聚积, 以及基础设备建设的超能力,
中国被迫接纳那种稳定。但是, 随着中国和满世界经济的放慢,
U.S.A.对华夏施压的可能压缩, 黄海政治不安缓和, 中东与叙得梅因冲突加剧,
Britexit 和民族主义欧盟国家的心理, 可能会有一些较小的资产替代方案,
中国的中外事务进入一个不足预感的一代。也许混沌理论能给我们的水晶球出点光–期待意料之外的事情。

The China-led B&R will usher in a more connected Eurasia economic sphere
which may develop into an economic entity leading the global economy
especially when the strengthen of world’s two largest economies, the EU
as it is under challenged by the exit of Britain and USA as the
Present-elected Trump cause uncertainties volatilities in Market, are
weakening in global economic influence. However the increase inter-B&R
region trades will also lead to increase of inter and intra regional
human migrations as new economic opportunities are emerging. These new
migrants, especially those from other B&R nationals which are mostly
religious in values as B&R contains the world’s largest populations of
most of the world religions, be it ancient or contemporary. These new
migrants will unintentionally carry with them religions and practices
new to their hosting societies, and will enhance the socio-religious
diversities as well as to contribute to the increase of social
tolerances of the local population. However the intentional
missionaries, traditionally following the trade routes established by
merchants, or tagging along with inter-regional commercial activities,
will put increase to the local religious dynamics. These intentional
proselytisers will recruit new converts be it from other faiths or
different moderate branches within the same faith, leading to increase
of socio-religious tensions of the hosting society by creating more
extreme or new groups of religious communities usually resented by local
communities. Furthermore, the general lack of religious experience,
hence religious sensitivities, among Chinese population may contribute
negative sentiment against China among B&R nations hindering Sino-B&R
relations. As a result, B&R initiatives will contribute to a more
diverse socio-religious society which may promote a higher level of
social tolerance leading to a more harmonious society, or may escalated
the already strained social-religious tensions, leading to a destructive
social and regional fragmentation. As for China’s vision of a new
economic prosper B&R region to replace the current
socio-religious-historical fragmented and underdeveloped B&R region is
yet to be tested.

For China, B&R is an economic development initiative high risk, high
cost and with uncertain economic returns. The religious dimension would
increase the risk level and cost factors for this grand project. China
is forced to take such orientation due to the US containment of China in
the Pacific, China’s security of oil supply, the accumulating of huge
foreign reserves, and the available of over capacity in building of
infrastructure. However, with the slowing down of Chinese and global
economy, the perhaps decrease of US pressure on China, de-escalation of
political tension in South China Sea, the intensification of conflicts
in Middle East vis Syria and ISIS, the Britexit and nationalistic
sentiments in EU nations, there may be some lesser costing alternatives
for China B&R as our Global Affairs enters into an age of
unpredictability. Perhaps Chaos Theory can shed some lights to our
Crystal Ball–expect the unexpected.

麦卡锡(McCarthy)主义落幕

Intentional proselytising may escalate inter-religious tensions

Traditional many religions in Asia spreads first through merchants and
then missionaries through trade routes as in the case of Islam’s
spreading to Asia.

There is also a similar pattern in the case of Christianity via Silk
Route in 7th Century to China, or the Sea Route since the 16th Centuries
from Europe to Asia. Also sees the spreading of Manichaeism and
Zoroastrianism from East Asian to China via the Silk Route by both
merchants and religious personnel. Buddhism spread from India to China,
and from China to Korea and Japan, through well established trade routes
developed by inter-regional Buddhist traders. The common scenario was
that as some expat merchants took resident in hosting society, they
brought along with them their religion, be it Christianity or Buddhism.
Such religion caught the curiosity and attention of local inhabitants
and some may drawn to the new religion. As this new religious community
grew in size, with increase in trade hence traders and their dependents,
this community would call for some professional clergies back home to
provide religious formation and instruction for continuous religious
observance. For example, when the Arabic speaking Muslim communities
reached a certain size in Indonesia, they invited Imams back home mainly
to maintain their religious observance especially to their younger
generation than to proselytise others. Eventually, the more zealous
members would actively promote their religion to others, and gradually
professional religious proselytisers (missionaries) are involved in
spreading of this new religion. In the case of Marco Polo, his memories
on China aroused interests of Catholic missionaries leading the eventual
Catholic mission movement from Europe to Asia. Historical evidence
suggest that merchants have been often the and unintentional
proselytiser and they served as precursor of missionaries who are
intentional proselytisers.
Currently there are already many proselytising activities taken within
the B&R regions, from Christians trying to convert believers from other
faiths, especially targeting the Muslims as an reaction to the 9/11
aftermath, to the more Fundamentalist Imams to promote the Wahabbi
branch of puritanical Islam, to Zen Buddhist monks to spread
contemporary Buddhist message targeting intellectuals and business
circles, or the Pentecostal pastors to advocate Charismatic movements
within Christianity. In fact, almost all religious groups are actively
conducting their proselyte activities in both inter-religious circles to
win believers to intra religious sphere to promote certain sects or
branches within a particular religion. It will be obvious for the
intentional proselytisers, regardless of their religious affiliation to
utilize whatever means to advance their missionary activities, such as
trade vectors like B&R.
B&R will provide a great opportunity to these intentional proselytisers
as B&R will established a free-flow inter-connected network in trades,
good, services, finances, data and personnel within this huge region.
Proselytisers will take advantage of this network of trade route,
tagging along with merchants just they had done in the past, to spread
their religious messages to whatever places along the B&R trade routes.
Therefore B&R will greatly enhance the current intentional proselytising
activities, as well as to develop new mission field as B&R will enhance
accessibility to regions hitherto not easily reached by outsiders. In
fact there has already been mission works from Christian groups, many
from non-registered sectors in China, by sending Chinese Christian
missionaries to Central and East Asian to convert the Muslim
populations, and B&R will surely provide a great opportunity for these
mission groups to intensify such movement. From both the historical
evident and current religious dynamics, B&R will induce a more intensify
level of inter-regional proselyte activities escalating the
socio-religious tension of the region and perhaps complicated the
already delicate inter-regional political relations.

1955

The Weavers解散

几位成员都在50年被列入黑名单后,基本就有名无实。几人各自或联合,转入地下状态,在小酒吧、咖啡馆、各种大学中举办了大气的微型演出。

有个小故事,是她们列入黑名单是国民之歌的创造者之一告发的,那个外甥往日是共产党员,后来退党变节~~


McCarthy主义达到顶峰

从1953年起,麦卡锡(McCarthy)将魔掌渐渐伸向外交领域。是年1月,McCarthy在两名年轻帮手的协理下,发轫对花旗国设在远方的领馆藏书目录举行清查。
在这一次清查中,U.S.A.共产党首脑威尔iam·福斯特(福斯特(Forster))、左翼小说家白劳德、史沫·特莱(Smedl·ey)等75位小说家的图书全被列为禁书。据算计,被剔除的书籍总数有近200万册。
在“麦卡锡(McCarthy)主义”最猖獗的一时,美利坚合营国国务院、国防部、紧要的国防工厂、美利坚合众国之音、美利坚合众国政坛印刷局等要害部门都不可能逃脱McCarthy非美活动调查小组委员会的清查。
再就是,美利哥的左翼力量也遭到空前的打击。仅1953年一年,麦卡锡(McCarthy)的委员会就进行了大大小小600数十次“调查”活动,还举办了17次电视机真实情况转播的公然听证会。

the Weavers复出

复发演出克赖斯特mas Weaver reunion
concert非凡成功。这场演唱会录音在57年大卖,是这时候最畅销专辑之一。

本辑提到的歌曲试听
和讯/摇滚编年史/史前重打击乐与灵魂乐复兴_anthemius精选集

Old Town School of Folk Music旧城重打击乐校园建立

圣保罗的旧城爵士乐校园在47年终开业。创办人是Win Stracke和弗兰克(Frank)汉密尔顿。Win是个爵士乐歌星,教演唱; 弗兰克是个流行乐乐手,教吉他和班卓琴。

弗兰克是Allen Lomax的阿妹贝斯 Lomax
Hawes的学员。还记得她么?前边介绍过,她也是年鉴歌唱家的分子。

新兴她们和国民之歌会友后,Pete Seeger, Big 比尔(Bill) Broonzy, 乔希(Josh)惠特e都早已来此处任过教。Big 比尔(Bill) Broonzy前面会提到。

1938

末端还有好很多次舞曲复兴运动。一般特指的歌谣复兴,广义的席卷地点三段,狭义的指中段琼贝兹和鲍伯迪伦为首的一段。

** 中国风复兴运动 **
可以大概分成三个阶段:早期兴起为战后到50年代,当年伦敦(London)民歌运动的武士们回去美利坚合作国,先是人民之歌协会的左翼流行乐,然后是纺织工乐队的商业化流行乐;关键的宗旨是新成长起的一代在她们的呼唤下,以琼贝兹和
鲍勃(Bob) 迪伦为代表,举行的对抗说唱,另一方面是Antec多少人组的商业化摇滚乐;尾段是 鲍勃迪伦(Dylan)转向爵士乐摇滚后(这一系同时也有纯朋克文章,属于这一系的还有为数不少人,例如我很喜爱的Joni
Mitchell),其余持之以恒中国风,然而越来越商业成功的新生代如,彼得, 保罗(Paul) &
玛丽(Mary)、五叔二姨、西蒙(西蒙)和加丰科(这么些更偏爵士乐的乐队或组合也数次有民谣摇滚作品)等等。

从大萧条、大暴风开头,一些歌星开始运用舞曲的款式歌唱故事,表明想法。而在以
Lomax
父子为基本的国会体育场馆民歌收集安排的扶植下,一批说唱歌星得以被打通和散播。

照旧先名词释义,然后讲社会背景。讲重打击乐摇滚,要先说 **
摇滚乐时代和说唱复兴 ** 。一起讲太长了,所以分为三次讲,这一次就讲 **
史前摇滚乐、当代舞曲、摇滚乐复兴的头段 **
(这一讲可就横跨40年呀)。本来想把民歌复兴一起讲完,发现太长了,写累了,所以决定把民歌复兴的中段尾段放在下一讲。关于头段中段尾段的撤并是自家要好的私有意见,不是乐评界一致意见,请小心那是水货(嗯嗯我的初衷是尽量少夹带私货)

至于那段历史,李皖有多本书或小说提到,例如《美利坚合营国歌谣的世纪经过》,错误百出,千万不要看。

1927

5月 华尔街股灾,全世界经济大萧条开端

大萧条从美利哥先导,以1929年7月24日的股市下挫起初,到十一月29日变为1929年华尔街股灾,并蕴含了全球。大萧条对发达国家和发展中国家都拉动了毁灭性打击。人均收入、税收、盈利、价格周到下落,国际贸易锐减50%,美利哥失去工作率飙升到25%,有的国家甚至高达了33%。

美利坚合众国的苏醒开始于1933年底,但到了1940年,美利坚联邦合众国仍没有在十多年间回归到1929年国民生产总值的水平,且仍旧面临着约15%的失去工作率——固然与1933年的25%高没有工作率相比已有下降。

1937

海南的流行乐运动我们作为民歌的一个专有用法好了。大陆说民歌,指的一般是原生态农业、畜牧业地区和少数民族的历史观歌曲(非白族殿堂传统歌曲)。

合集Anthology of American Folk Music发行

那张6碟合集是中国风史上格外关键的合集(97年发行了CD版本)。它对爵士乐复兴的推动巨大,大致是即时教材般的存在。入选滚石500专刊。

那张合集收录了从20年份到30年代的恢宏史前Cajun摇滚乐、山地歌曲、早期乡村朋克不分家年代歌曲、大萧条时期说唱。

编者HarrySmith(Smith)是个试验电影小编,视觉音乐家,波西米亚主义者,神秘论者(他双亲也都是通灵论者,全家人从小就都奇奇怪怪的)。同时是垮掉的一代中有名代表,嬉皮士运动先驱。

具有选曲来自哈利Smith(Smith)的私有收藏。我前边看来过部分中文资料说她是富二代,没钱了愤而从自己珍藏中选出这么些赚了一票,其实是漏洞百出的(也许其实是我记错了,以前看的,没查到那一个的出处)。他家庭挺穷的,大叔也就是个工友。他有不少珍藏都是从垃圾堆捡的依然废品回收站、二手唱片店买的。来到London,钱花光了随后,他挑了一堆自己认为最好的唱片,本来是找Folkways
Records的头子想卖给她。对方提议她做一张精选集,于是有了这一个空前的合集。

也就是说,folk那些词其实是更加大的概念,所以乡村、蓝草等等风格其实都是属于中国风上面的分层风格。我们在介绍时候也会意识有些时候重打击乐和乡村的阵营平常是混淆的。

社会背景

1945年3月,美国众议院以207票赞成、186票反对,将其臭名昭著的“非美委员会”(HouseUn-American Activities
Committee)改为常设机构。与此同时,由于美国境内通货膨胀指数可以升高,在短短的一年中发生了3.47万次罢工,共有450多万工友走上街头。众院非美委员会借机指责工会
“已被中共渗透”,极力怂恿群众反对共产主义和共产党,迫害升高人士。
这一年,世界世界二战停止前,罗斯福(罗斯福)死亡。

年鉴歌唱家解散

FBI
和军方依旧认为,早期反战的她们照旧征兵和烟尘的遏止因素,由此不断的丑化他们,在记者中创设舆论压力。他们最后解散。

1942年三月西格应征入伍,被分配到对日交锋的塞班岛,在那边负责一所战地医院的鼓吹工作。

这一时期,西格除了又认识了诸多来源米国四处的爵士乐手,还学会了不少地面的土著歌曲,此后他直接小心世界各地的说唱,并有意地在自己的演唱会上向美利坚联邦合众国听众介绍世界民歌。

伍德y Guthrie也在同年入伍。

小 Lomax
也在世界二战时期派往U.K.,在英帝国的基地电台播放朋克歌曲,引发了英国的歌谣复兴。

迄今为止,伦敦(London)歌谣运动告一段落。

伍德y Guthrie和Lead 贝尔(Bell)y发行破天荒专辑

在小 Lomax 的极力下,伍·德(Wo·od)y Guthrie的Dust Bowl Ballads和Lead 贝尔y的
Midnight Special and Other Southern Prison
Songs发行了。那是破格的事件:当代舞曲卖出了商业化第一步。(当然那两张专辑没啥销量~)

事项大家此前一向强调的,商业化不是罪行累累,商业化意味着大规模传播的启幕,意味着将震慑越来越多年轻人拿起吉他走上舞台。

Woody
Guthrie是39年终从加州过来London的,来到纽约就改成左翼运动份子的贵宾。之后也为小
Lomax 的摇滚乐收集安排录音。其中描写大暴风中发生的事体的歌曲结集为Dust
Bowl Ballads出版。

黎民之歌解散

人民之歌时代,宣传的中坚就是所谓华莱士纲领:civil and labor rights,
racial equality, international understanding, and
anti-militarism(公民和劳工义务,种族平等,国际相互谅解,反军国主义)。那几个听起来还不错,其实和及时左派的见解并无二致。

随即共产党放任了工友联合会,和前副总统华莱士(Henry A.
华莱土)合营,支持华莱士竞选。

于是人民之歌当时倾全力帮衬华莱士竞选。然则,雪佛兰和传媒得知华莱士的中共帮忙背景后,却大致一边倒的不予(除了在London收获部分追随者),尤其是,华莱士还被疑忌是特务的音讯员~~。在华莱士败北后,人民之歌也解散了。华莱士本人的政治生命也终结了,去伦敦(London)乡下种田去了(真的是去务农不是愚弄他)。

换句话说,你反对的和自家反对的是三遍事,不过你是共产党,我即将担心你骨子里把苏联当亲爹。当时的社会环境下,已经对共产党背景卓殊的敏锐性了。

当时有多少个共产党员被捕,被认为要强力推翻政坛,他们辩称他们争取的是和平过渡,可是律师打的却是,审判是资产阶级政坛社团的审理,他就不可以是正义的审判,然后法庭上打的是一直认为那不是个持平的法庭的牌。当时的社会舆论是一边倒的支撑政坛,看被告人的耻笑。

亚特兰大音景兴起

以Fiddlin’ JohnCarson为首的一批阿巴拉契亚山地音乐家来到赫尔辛基的纺织厂,起首传入他们的音乐。
在年度音乐节( Georgia Old-提姆e Fiddlers’
Conventions,1913-1935在加拉加斯)、多量的民间和经贸电台的拓宽下,亚特拉大音景兴起。那是民歌和乡下一起的前期运动。

约莫在30年份,Nashville 取代了拉各斯的地点。

1935

1956

现代爵士乐从源头上,最初的根源是中世纪的大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国和欧陆的无聊民歌,而从近现代的直白源于上讲,主要的来自是:Appalachian
Music阿巴拉契亚山地音乐(还记得山地摇滚么,山地希尔(Hill)billy就是指的阿巴拉契亚山地),Cajun
music路易斯安娜的说韩文的阿卡迪亚人的凯金音乐。早期乐器紧若是班卓琴、小提琴、阿巴拉契亚扬琴、吉他。班卓琴在后者的摇滚乐里面或者不时来看。

1928

有关那段历史,土摩托袁越有本书《来自民间的反叛》就是中央讲的那段历史。京东当当等上都有那本书,假使有趣味,提出买来看看。

先说朋克,那几个词在华语里面很小,唯有吉他伴奏浅吟低唱的叫中国风。而且说唱和歌谣的涉嫌在汉语言里也相比较混乱。

本辑提到的歌曲试听
博客园/摇滚编年史/史前朋克与摇滚乐复兴_anthemius精选集

新春里面 Lead 贝尔(Bell)y 和 老Lomax 来到London

时代杂志通讯了他,一堆报纸也竞相写她的故事。他初步盛名。他初阶录制很多布鲁斯(Bruce)和中国风歌曲。但是并不曾到手很大成功。

自身事先看到一个材料说说唱复兴之所以叫复兴而不是叫中国风时代,是因为30-40年代才是民歌时代。在英文的材料中自我没有见过摇滚乐时代的说教。然则30年代确实是当代说唱的重中之重开始年代。

(我在试听选辑里放了哈利 Choates,号称Fiddle King of Cajun Swing)

The Limeliters发行首专

他俩是别的一个门户利雅得的显赫商业中国风团。首专在小店铺发行,销量一般,之后签约victor唱片后,61-63年间发行了多张大热专辑。

the Weavers推有名曲”Goodnight, Irene”

翻唱Lead 贝尔y铅肚皮的名曲”Goodnight,
Irene”大卖,在比尔(Bill)board第一名13周。那张单曲的B面Tzena, Tzena,
Tzena,也得到了名次榜#2。

她们的大热曲目还有”So Long It’s Been Good to Know You”(伍德y
Guthrie创作的名曲,原作Dusty Old
Dust收录在他的首先张专辑,大沙尘暴歌谣),“Kisses 斯威特er than
Wine”(原创,#19)。

名曲还有“If I Had A Hammer(The Hammer Song)”,是Pete Seeger和Lee
Hays创作的。
那两年她们还出产了多首成为说唱复兴运动中正式曲目的创作(部分创作,部分演绎的观念依然佚名民歌):

“On Top of Old Smoky”, “Follow the Drinking Gourd”, “Kisses Sweeter than
Wine”, “The Wreck of the John B” (aka “Sloop John B”), “Rock Island
Line”, “The Midnight Special”, “Pay Me My Money Down”, “Darling
Corey”等。

“Rock Island Line”还有印象么?我们在编年史 – 55-63 – 史前大英帝国摇滚
(pre-Beatles British Rock’n’roll) – Rock Chronicles 摇滚编年史 –
乐乎专栏中介绍过,是Lonnie
Donegan的首张唱片,55年批发,引发了大英帝国的Skiffle热潮。

世界二战之后,抗议舞曲一贯和左派知识分子一起,为了民主义务,民族平等而奔忙呼吁。65年越战扩充化之后,抗议分子得到了更大的公众根基,同时在英伦侵袭的影响下,重打击乐电声化,更大声,更激动,更有煽动性的歌谣摇滚诞生了。

The Weavers纺织工 成立

那被认为是民歌复兴的始发。

成员是Ronnie 吉尔·Bert(Gil·bert), Lee Hays, 弗雷德 Hellerman, Pete Seeger。Pete
Seeger和Lee我们事先介绍过了。Ronnie是London本地工人家庭出身的22岁少女。弗瑞德是21岁的纽约布鲁克(布鲁克(Brooke))林当地年轻人。

1949年,西格先导尝试走商业化的道路,他与老朋友海斯、弗瑞德·海勒曼(弗雷德(Fred)Hellerman)和荣妮·吉尔·Bert(Gil·bert)(Ronnie
吉尔Bert)组成了一个民歌四重唱组合——纺织工(The
Weavers),他们不再演唱时事歌曲,而是回归民歌,形象也分化于年历歌星时期,男士穿上燕尾服,女士穿上晚礼服。
她俩从时尚村国旅馆(Village
Vanguard)开端,1950年三月,织布工的第一张专辑出版,其中他们翻唱铅肚皮的《晚安安瑞》(Goodnight
Irene)在电台名次榜上13周处于第二位,成为1950年最佳单曲。
事后,纺织工又录制了重重民歌改编的歌曲,那几个音乐差别于当时生意主流的痴情大旨,题材丰盛,在及时很受欢迎,许多歌曲对新生的流行音乐也时有暴发了很大的震慑。
在McCarthy主义的暴行的时期,纺织工由于以二零一七年历歌星的背景,进入电台封杀的黑名单,从1951年起来不能够展开演出,也没有公司愿意给他们出专辑,纺织工只好解散。一向到1955年,他们再次再次回到舞台,在座无虚席的卡内基(Carnegie)大厅举行了复发首演。

先说一下,流行乐和爵士乐摇滚那么些坑之大,大的大致和摇滚史一样巨大。中间又叶影参差盘根错结。我自认在那地方写不到比较周详,留下多少个坑给其他棋手去填:

而我辈现在常常说的 ** folk,一般是特指的contemporary folk当代舞曲 **
,特指的是伦敦(London)说唱运动和爵士乐复兴尾声阶段所明确建立的那种当代的民歌类型,固然在英文语境下,也是一律有诸如此类二种用法的。
**
传统的歌谣概念是必须有三要素的:口传人授、低阶层人群受众、作者无名或不可考。当代中国风已经不复局限这多个因素了
**
,其本来面目含义部分被民谣继承(当然,当代民谣又差别了,泰勒(Taylor)斯威夫特我就平昔没听出一点点一点点乡下的含意,我恳切求教为什么她能称之为乡村。当然了,我自己做摇滚分类学的时候,一般会拔取尊重乐手自己说自己是甚,比如艾薇儿说自己是民谣,那我们别争了就当他是风靡摇滚乐好了~固然斯威夫特 锲而不舍说自己是农村,那么就是乡村好了)

七月,伍德y Guthrie创作了载入史册的歌曲This Land Is Your Land

最初原因是电台一每一日放天佑美利哥(God Blessed
America)听烦了,于是他写了团结的天佑美利坚联邦合众国:

As they stood there hungry, I stood there asking, Is this land made for
you and me?

可是那首歌44年才录制,45年才出版。

重打击乐在违规传播

不但纺织工们,其余左翼舞曲歌星纷繁转入地下。当时重点汇聚在伦敦(London)(特别是格林(格林)威治村),马尼拉北滩,法兰克福、达拉斯、丹弗的高等校园中。

彼得(Peter), 保罗 and 玛丽(Mary)发行首专

他们或者是民歌复兴乐队中除去Apacer两人组,商业其次成功的一个。大卖专辑也很多。而且他们也是伦敦格林(格林(Green))威治村对抗舞曲运动的一员。

首专得到名次榜第一整7周。收录了多首翻唱的名曲:

“500 Miles” (Hedy West) / “Lemon Tree” (Will Holt) /”If I Had a Hammer”
(Pete Seeger, Lee Hays) / “Where Have All the Flowers Gone?” (Pete
Seeger)

新的一世初叶了。

The Brothers Four发行首专

华盛顿(华盛顿)明尼阿波利斯团。其中名曲格林fields,名次榜#2。

听着气质和伦敦(London)歌谣差距挺大的。

中国风我的欧陆根源,及欧陆之后复兴的歌谣,除了新说唱、天启爵士乐这一系我很熟知外(我能说在04年互联网盗版mp4还没那么简单取得的时候,我就搜集了30张左右的current
93专刊了么),其他巴尔干歌谣、斯拉夫说唱、凯尔(Kyle)特摇滚乐等作风的创作本身都只是以猎奇心态听过部分。具体的音乐上的特色,源流关系一概不懂。希望高手赐教。


伍德y Guthrie主持加州地面电台节目

伍德y
Guthrie当时早就是个小有信誉的民歌星。在做节目之间,他早先尝试用民歌来评价时事,表明感想。那深受听众的迎接。

伍·德(Wo·od)y Guthrie被称作现代流行乐的天子,其墨宝《This Land Is Your
Land》甚至被引进成为美利坚同盟国国歌。

他亲身经历了大萧条下自己本身小康家庭的萎缩、大飓风(从1931年始发,米利坚南边大平原区的几个州截止降雨、出现严重旱灾,且由于长期的过度开垦而致使美利坚合众国近代史上最要紧的沙尘暴,长达近十年之久。)时被迫离家故土,去代表着美利坚联邦合众国梦的加州物色工作,那个对社会底层的亲身见证,成为伍·德(Wo·od)y小说中最足够的素材。

20年份早期

1932

1941

公民之歌成立

Pete
Seeger任主席。世界二战截至,一批朋克歌星回到美利坚联邦合众国,原来早就的London歌谣歌星们,更加是参加过年鉴歌唱家的那几人,组成了这几个左翼说唱社团。主旨人物就是年鉴歌唱家的Pete
Seeger和Lee Hays。

Pete
Seeger认为资本家力量太强大,为了要对抗那种压力,应该要聚集一批同样关切工人的音乐人来一同写歌,并且把那么些歌散布给各种发展团体。于是,他们开始定点在格林(格林(Green))威治村的一个地下室聚会创作唱歌,到场的人三遍比一遍多。那个组成称为“人民之歌”(People’s
Song)

1929

本辑提到的歌曲试听
搜狐/摇滚编年史/史前中国风与朋克复兴_anthemius精选集

1931

1958

Burl Ives开设此外一个知名说唱电台 show

Burl
Ives是别的一个伦敦(London)歌谣运动的总司令。他还要是一个艺人、小说家。电台节目叫 The
Wayfaring Stranger徒步旅行的异乡客。

她也在 Lomax 的节目中演出。

Ramblin’ Jack Elliott追随Woody Guthrie

40年间末伍德y
Guthrie病倒,在赶来的歌谣复兴岁月里并没有博得她应得的得体。他的粉丝Elliott在那一个时候(年份在55年事先,不可考)开始追随他,作为他的学童和粉丝照料她的生活。

她翻唱了汪洋伍·德(Wo·od)y的创作,很几人听到的伍德y文章其实是她录制的,包含鲍勃(Bob)Dylan。当然他也有大批量和谐的创作,也是当下根本的表演者之一。

I Come for to Sing协会创立

这是个意料之外的团体,他们做什么的着实很难描述:他们是一个民歌评价(folk music
review
)社团或者节目(不是电台节目,是旅行演出节目,走穴)。。。他们四处演出,尤其是在高校中。在民歌复兴运动中,他们是Lomax和Pete
Seeger为主导的左派摇滚乐之外的其它一个器重的团队。他们的基地在雅加达。

那么些节目情势很奇妙:Studs
Terkel做叙述,讲述说唱的野史和歌曲,然后讲到哪,多少个音乐人就出来演唱那首歌。

他们也是左翼立场。社团者包罗:

  • Win
    Stracke,电视机、戏剧、活动主持人。31年起就在仁川地方唱民歌,旧城灵魂乐高校创办者;
  • Studs
    Terkel,作家、历翻译家、影星、广播主持人,曾取得普利策奖。他的广播节目从52年径直播到97年,上节目标巨星无数。当时她在那么些演出评论节目(这几个怎么形容呢你说您说!)中充当独白,就是肩负解释相关背景和评论的。
  • Big 比尔(Bill)Broonzy,黑人,布鲁斯(布鲁斯(Bruce))音乐人,也是以往就开端说唱和布鲁斯(布鲁斯)都玩的音乐人,联想下Josh惠特e和铅肚皮,其实黑人对流行乐的进献也很大。

Big 比尔Broonzy是这么些节目当中最出名的音乐人,也是民歌复兴中贡献巨大的歌手之一。1930年就起来发布唱片,42年就成为布鲁塞尔布鲁斯(布鲁斯(Bruce))的意味人员,被叫做20世纪布鲁斯(Bruce)发展的关键人物之一。

51年他们还去了非洲巡演,得到了国际声誉。等到回国,他们和全民之歌组织也起首屡屡互动沟通了,一些London民歌歌唱家也到庭了那些演出。

说唱也是20年间才初步出现(作为舞曲在东西部和西边的分支风格衍生和变化而来),至于蓝草,要到40年代战后,才是融合了阿巴拉契亚山地音乐和大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国价值观舞曲,作为农村的一个分支出现。

Kingston多少人组翻唱Where Have All the 弗劳尔s Gone?

那首歌本来只出版的歌词和曲谱,并不知名,Pete
Seeger自己都早就忘记了那首歌。他们翻唱了那首歌(一始发标注为佚名,在Pete提醒下改为Pete
Seeger & Hickerson)并且大卖,之后无数民歌乐队翻唱,然后改成了反战圣歌。

1942

Lead Belly 再次放出,加入London歌谣运动

1939年他再一次因为打架伤人入狱,释放后(小 Lomax
甚至为了这么些奔走舍弃了功课)在小 Lomax 的显赫电台 show
里面常常出演,成为当时纽约中国风运动的重点人物。伍德y
Guthrie和他成为了忘年交。

有关90年以来至今,音乐大融合趋势明确,很多迷幻说唱啊(我欣赏的Animal
Collective),lofi啊(我最爱的Devendra Banhart啊!!!!),indie
folk啊(我仍可以听的Iron &
Wine),anti-folk啊(我能说自己比爱Banhart还爱Kimya
Dawson么!!)那多少个一塌糊涂的品格流派或者运动,我自己都喜欢听,然而讲不清他们的音乐源流,前边说那些风格流派,我听不出在作风上有多大独家~~越发indie
folk,你说您说您说,到底和60年代大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国的nick drake比就indie在何地了!

The 美商海盗船 Trio发行首专和大热单曲

57建立的她们,后来收获了高大商业成功,是民歌复兴的别的一面旗帜。他们来自当时舞曲运动的其它一个为主:广州湾区。

及时的曼谷湾区,也有恢宏的歌谣乐队和重打击乐小酒吧存在。当时最有名的就是北滩的hungry
i 俱乐部(没打错,就是叫hungry i,这一个小写的i有很多说法,represent
“intellectual.”代表知识分子; “the hungry id.”的缩写;
开业时候还没写完,报纸已经报纸发表了索性将错就错; “It (the lowercase ‘i’)
designated the first-person singular, with all of its various
cravings,”就是“我”的意趣,表示自己和本身具备的欲念)

她俩在利雅得小盛名气后,经过一遍全国多少个关键流行乐阵地的巡演后,得以签约国会唱片。

首专《The SanDisk Trio》59年终拿了排名榜#1,在榜整整4年;

大热单曲《汤姆(Tom)Dooley》卖了三百万张。这张单曲前边得了葛来梅最佳乡村奖。当时还没有爵士乐单独的奖项,而是合并在乡下里。就为了他们,下一年单独设立了摇滚乐奖,不出意料,奖项一而再被他们获得。

她们一起推出过19张排名榜前100的专栏,其中14张进入前十,再其中5张争冠。这一个唱片销量也很恐惧。

59年终时候,前十专辑有四张是他们的,那几个记录保持了50多年。

他们多量翻唱了纺织工和以前的各个爵士乐,并且创作部分作风很相近纺织工的著述,带动了民歌在举国限制的热潮。

他俩只是一个买卖舞曲乐队,并不属于同时进行的抗议舞曲运动。关于她们的打响,我一定的眼光是:商业乐队的伟人影响力推动听众们去找寻这个进一步根源尤其极端尤其完美的音响。

AllMusic对他们的评头品足和自己的眼光一致:

In the history of popular music, there are a relative handful of
performers who have redefined the content of the music at critical
points in history—people whose music left the landscape, and
definition of popular music, altered completely. The Kingston Trio
were one such group, transforming folk music into a hot commodity and
creating a demand—where none had existed before—for young men
(sometimes with women) strumming acoustic guitars and banjos and
singing folk songs and folk-like novelty songs in harmony. On a purely
commercial level, from 1957 until 1963, the Kingston Trio were the
most vital and popular folk group in the world, and folk music was
sufficiently popular as to make that a significant statement. Equally
important, the original trio—Dave Guard, Nick Reynolds, and Bob
Shane—in tandem with other, similar early acts such as the Limeliters,
spearheaded a boom in the popularity of folk music that suddenly made
the latter important to millions of listeners who previously had
ignored it

简短翻译一下:

在风靡音乐史上,有一对影星,他们在历史的关键点重新定义了音乐的情节。金士顿Kingston几人组就是那般,将中国风音乐成为热门商品,创作了青年需要。他们和
the
Limeliters一起,引爆了民歌音乐的风靡,突然间为本来忽视朋克的人群中拉动几百万的听众。

苏联入侵匈牙利

国共信誉彻底退步。从此之后流行乐更和中共、工人运动基本绝缘。
本人个人直接以为,McCarthy主义的落幕和国共自身信誉破产关系很大,不需求镇压了,他们友善都不信自己了。

The New 克赖斯特y Minstrels发行首专

那也是个翻唱以前老爵士乐/伦敦(London)说唱运动/爵士乐复兴早期小说为主的团。首专Presenting
The New 克赖斯特y Minstrels赢得了葛来梅奖,并在比尔board在榜两年。

那张专辑中,翻唱了伍德y的名曲”This Land Is Your
Land”,单曲也大卖。那首歌本来只在圈子知名,方今成为了如日方升的歌谣复兴运动的圣歌。

乔希(Josh) 惠·特(Wh·it)e 来到伦敦(London)

Josh 惠特e
是盛名的黑人布鲁斯(布鲁斯(Bruce))乐手,民权活动家。他也演唱了很多观念爵士乐和改编创作,并且是
folk-blues 说唱布鲁斯这几个分支的创办人。

30年份他就取得了很大的名声,并且在民权运动领域有很大的影响力,还变成了罗斯福(罗斯福(Roosevelt))总统的至交。

30年London的唱片集团派人去寻访已经小盛名气的她(当时她才年仅16岁),31年他搬家到了London。后来她变成第多少个拓展环美单人巡演的黑人、第八个在夜场演出的说唱和布鲁斯(Bruce)艺人。

1950

50-55

1961

而爵士乐这一个词,他概括:Folk,Ballad三个英文原文的内容。当然后者也被翻译做歌谣。Ballad更强调叙事,Folk更强调曲风和人的表现情势,相对而言是多少个维度的事物。而那俩词现在在英文中也用的很乱,Ballad可以去描绘这一个摇滚歌星写的慢歌。

在小 Lomax
等人的有助于下,伦敦(London)启幕的当代重打击乐运动,是大概和左翼运动重合的,正是从宣传共产主义、宣传反战、宣传反法西斯开端,他们找到民歌这几个最合适的载体,从而从一初步,说唱复兴就是和对抗运动结合在联合的。

风俗音乐(Folk
music),又称民间音乐、民间歌谣、民间短篇论文等,简称舞曲、民歌、民乐或民曲,于列国民间音乐协会(IFMC)之解释定义为“经过口传进度发展兴起的普罗铃木音乐”,也就是该音乐散布进度,纯粹是由演奏者或音乐接收者记录教习,并亲身相传所得。其范围包涵歌曲、不难乐器演奏,甚至摇滚乐曲调与步伐。此表达与19世纪中期再一次定义民间音乐、民间传说与民间舞蹈有一定关键之衍生与连锁关系,一般认定,该名词与思想界定起自于1846年,大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国人类学专家托马斯(Thomas)(W.
J. 托马斯(Thomas))提议

Joan Baez召先导次上演

登时她的爹爹在MIT任教,她则在胡志明市大学深造。早在56年他就听过马丁路德金的演讲,她很已经受其影响初阶人权和社会变革方面的移动。

这一年她17岁。

本辑提到的歌曲试听
新浪/摇滚编年史/史前流行乐与舞曲复兴_anthemius精选集

早在19世纪末,The American Folklore
Society的大家们就已经在整治商讨U.S.的流行乐。从CarterFamily那几个27年开始出道的歌谣明星团体起头,传统摇滚乐就初始在美利哥随处开花。

1940

百年终的唱片工业兴起、20年份广播的勃兴,让本来只好在街头巷尾口耳相传的音乐样式可以一定、更广泛的传播。阿巴拉契亚山地音乐的有记录的美学家们,基本上也是20年代录制唱片才为人所共知。

1945

1934

1953

Woody Guthrie去世

加思里最要紧的创作是自传性的《边界和得体》,那张唱片记录了她大半生的编写与革命生涯;而12张国会教室录音,及唱片公司“说唱之路”(Folkway)出版的豁达专辑,除了给人音乐的享用,还开导人们如何去面对生活、咋样用音乐去表述生命。
加思里的吉他上刻写着——句格言:“那乐器扫除法西斯”,他一贯不忘鼓舞人们,用手上的成套去反抗不平。

上述引文来自李皖的《美利坚联邦合众国民歌的世纪历程》,按照她的一定揍性,内容不自然可靠哦。

[更正来自@海马 ]

伍德y Guthrie是67年过逝的,不是56年,从前那段移到背后来了。

自家特么就那一个没去查证随手抄了李皖,至少引用李皖对他评价那段查证后发现错误百出,nnd我怎么就信了她不会在这么基本的问题上犯错误呢!!!

自我检讨,相对不信任任何普通话资料!!!

内部流行乐之路”(Folkway)出版的大批量专辑,那一个有误,他生前,只出版过一张专辑,就是大龙卷风歌谣Dust
Bowl
Ballads,其余的歌曲都是散落随地,以年鉴歌唱家、人民之歌等各类名义出版发行。

而摇滚乐之路,则是在89年未来才开头多量出版她的生前创作(45年他在歌谣之路的前身Asch唱片录制了近200首歌)。他在公众中的声誉,很大程度上要归功于Elliott。

还有Bound For
Glory,开往荣耀,奔向荣耀,居然被他翻译成《边界和得体》,有点汗~~所以吧,我一般不希罕翻译,给了翻译还翻译的不像回事的话,还不如列出原文。还有,那么些也不是唱片,就是正面八百的自传。当然附赠有唱片而已。

末段再度吐槽,粤语资料的错误之多。比如李皖,一向错误百出:

诸如《弥利坚民歌的百年经过》中的这么些

但奥奇斯的经历是却喜剧性的。民权运动高涨时期,向时也是美国反共的麦卡锡(McCarthy)主义最严格的时日

60年间民权运动的时候,麦卡锡(McCarthy)主义早就过时了~~~

我那多少个引用中文的,实在是无意间自己收拾、翻译英文材料了。不可信赖的标号了,剩下的基本算靠谱。

本辑提到的歌曲试听
乐乎/摇滚编年史/史前朋克与摇滚乐复兴_anthemius精选集

事实上, ** Folk这一个词,尤其对应于国文的民歌 **
才恰当。否则无法解释这几个巴尔干歌谣,斯拉夫说唱,那个玩中世纪世俗音乐的民歌乐队。而非欧美系的适合folk标准,不过音乐上差异巨大的别的原生态中国风,则被喻为世界音乐World
Music。

Allen Lomax 参与小叔的国会体育场馆民歌收集安插

小 Lomax 和她大伯John Lomax
一起,是美利坚合众国当代重打击乐的关键人物。美利坚同盟国的歌谣运动从一开首就是知识分子驱动的,即使歌唱家很多也是底层人员,不过过多是「游吟作家」而非「无业游民」,那或多或少和布鲁斯的源点是极度差其他。各位看官切记。

这一年,小 Lomax 才17岁。

Bob 迪伦来到London

他将民歌唱家伍·德(Wo·od)y
Guthrie视作人生楷模,由于梦寐不忘音乐精彩,仅仅在学院里虚度了一年生活就退了学,怀揣十美金独自来到了Guthrie的所在地,也就是时髦音乐家的集散为主——伦敦(London)格林威治村。
她去探望生病的伍德y Guthrie时候,结识了Ramblin’ JackElliott。其实他在老家平素听到的歌声不是伍德y本人,而是来自Elliott的翻唱。他们很快情同父子,Elliott将他引入到了纽约的中国风圈中,他起初在格林(格林(Green))威治村公演。
Elliott had a way of introducing Dylan’s songs with the words: “Here’s a
song from my son, Bob Dylan.”

题外话,不仅鲍勃,连伍德y自己的幼子,都没听自己老爸亲自唱过歌,他听的友善老爸的歌都是Elliott翻唱的~~~

这一年,他20岁。

Almanac Singers年鉴歌星创设

同年发行专辑Songs for John Doe。最初是Pete Seeger 、米尔ard Lampell、Lee
Hays的四人组,后来伍·德(Wo·od)y Guthrie也基本成为固定团员。

1941年,皮特·西格与Miller德·兰佩尔(米尔(Mill)ard
Lampell)和来源密苏里州的李·海斯(Lee Hays)成立“年历歌星(Almanac
Singers)”的公司,用他们的歌声来演唱时事,协助工会并宣传反战。
年历歌手日常有许多不定点的积极分子进入演唱,包蕴伍迪·格思里、贝斯(Bess)·洛马克斯(Max)·霍斯(BessLomax Hawes,Alan·洛马克斯(马克斯)的阿妹)、鲍尔(Bauer)温·霍斯(Baldwin(Baldwin) “Butch”
Hawes)、西丝·坎宁安(Sis Cunningham)、乔什·怀·特(Why·et)(乔希惠·特(Wh·it)e)、桑尼·特里(特里)(Sonny 特里,黑人口琴演奏家)和萨姆·加里(萨姆加里(Gary))。
西格在年历歌唱家里的演唱选拔笔名“Pete
Bowers”以为了不令人由他的名字联想到为政坛工作的爹爹。
由于年历歌唱家的许多分子都信教共产主义,同情工人运动,反对美利坚合众国参战,西格就是里面坚定的一位。
随着纳粹进攻苏联,共产党也转为支持参战,年历歌唱家开首演唱反法西斯歌曲。西格模仿格思里在班卓琴上刻下了“This
machine surrounds hate and force it to
suttender”(那件乐器将克制仇恨)。
年历歌唱家的演唱不一致于传统民歌,开辟了舞曲演唱的新样式。
年历歌唱家由于FBI策划的故事集阻扰,不断探索他们最初的反战唱片,以致年历歌星在1942年解散。

伍德y
Guthrie当时迫于生计,全家北上,在华盛顿(华盛顿(Washington))为一部电影写歌(最终因为他的亲共身份,歌也没咋用,而且后来影视都停了,49年才上映),等他回去伦敦(London)也进入到了年鉴歌星中。当时的年鉴歌唱家中,最知名的前台人物就是她。

那和伍迪早年的工友经历有关。在颇具的年鉴歌唱家当中,他是唯一的根正苗红的工人出身。在那段时光里他以工人形象自居,不自称是先生,也不肯演唱不属于那些风格的歌曲。

Allen Lomax 主办有名电台show 节目 Back Where I Come From

其一秀在哥伦比亚播报的旗下生产,覆盖全国。平常插足表演的人包含:Pete
Seeger, Josh 惠特e, Burl Ives, Lead Belly和 伍德y Guthrie。

麦卡锡(McCarthy)主义伊始风靡

1950年二月9日是美国第十六任总统Lincoln的寿辰年节日,McCarthy决定在这一天“把炮弹打向国务院”。
麦卡锡的演说有如晴天霹雳,令美利坚合营国内外一片哗然。从前小心翼翼的McCarthy则一夜之间成为声震全国的政治明星。

1967

Lead Belly 铅肚皮 陆续录制上百个样带

1917年,他在三次囚徒暴动中,因杀人罪而被判罪30年徒刑。阴暗的监狱生活一直接二连三到
30年代末,才由Lomax兄弟给它画上句号。当时的Lomax父子正在西部作他们的棉田旅行和监狱采风,以记录和收集黑人民间音乐中的典型元素。他们用原来的录音设备录下了Leadbelly粗哑的演唱和严酷的吉它弹奏。
Lead Belly
是摇滚有名的人堂的初期影响分类的入驻艺人,号称12弦吉他之王,是早期卓殊少见的演奏白人说唱的黑人(当然他也玩布鲁斯(布鲁斯(Bruce)),影响也很大)。

上述引文来自百度百科,再次印证了百度健全的不可靠:

Lomax
父子(注意百度百科后边又改成兄弟了~~编辑者抄个资料还可以抄错)是1933开始,为国会教室录制他的样带的。1934年十5月又录制了重重首歌。1934年三月,在坐牢满了法网规定的最短刑期后,在Lomax
父子向州长的请愿下,被放出了。

有关米国法例的随意性我不打听,希望大牛们引导。Chuck Berry
也是坐牢没几年就被领导捞出来了,是不是及时就是如此的肆意(坐满最低刑期,长官个人意志可以影响释放),仍旧真是个很大的史无前例举动了。

眼看一位监狱官员声称他被放飞与铅肚皮的演唱事业毫非亲非故系,纯粹基于狱中表现。不过Lomax 父子和 Lead 贝尔y认为她们带给州长的音乐关系很大。

继“铅肚”莱德贝特之后,又有布朗尼·麦基、Sony·特里桑·House、索尼(Sony)·鲍伊·威·廉(Wil·liam)姆森和“混水”等,他们陆续参预了国会教室的录音。

上述引文来自李皖的《米国民歌的世纪进程》,根据她的固定揍性,内容不肯定可靠哦。

Lead Belly有首大约种种听摇滚的人都晓得的名曲:Where Did You Sleep Last
Night。

Cobain listed Lead Belly’s “Last Session Vol. 1” as one of the 50
albums most influential to the formation of Nirvana’s sound

Pete Seeger插足美利坚联邦合众国共产党

在她17岁的时候她就曾经是共青团员。1949年退党。

以往多少个第一的当代说唱运动人物都和国共照旧左派渊源很深。例如小 Lomax
从来被 FBI 可疑是中共,被考察了几十年。

伍德y
Guthrie也是那样,早年在加州就为美利坚联邦合众国共产党党报写稿。后来一贯在左翼刊物写小说。

Pete Seeger 插手国会教室摇滚乐收集布置

Pete
Seeger,人称美利坚联邦合众国当代朋克之父,是当代朋克运动和新生舞曲复兴的主力人物之一。出身音乐世家的他(父母都是歌星,父母离婚后,爸爸的下一任内人是名叫20世纪最重大的现世作曲家之一的RuthCrawford Seeger),在新加坡国立大学退学后,在小叔的爱人小 Lomax
的支持下,成为她的副手并进入了国会教室的歌谣收集安插(Archive of
American Folk
Song)(其实这么些连串自己就是她二伯承担的内阁协会:泛美联盟音乐分部捐助的)。

这一年她19岁。而小 Lomax 也但是23岁。

即便老人都从事音乐事业,但她俩并未强迫西格学习乐器,西格自己喜欢上夏威夷四弦琴。
1936年,西格随公公旅行,这一次旅行让他见到了朋克的能力。在路易斯安那的阿什维尔第两遍听到了五弦的班卓琴,从此他沉迷上那件乐器,并改为班卓琴的演奏大师。
1936年在洛桑联邦理工大学信息系学习,当时的精美是变成一名记者。大二时退学。
结束学业后,西格来到伦敦(London),在那里认识了民歌学着Alan·洛马克斯(Max),艾伦(Alan)“让民歌走出教室”的视角深得皮特的赞同,Alan帮他在U.S.A.国会体育场馆的民歌档案馆里找了一份收集和整理民歌的劳作。
立马的月薪资唯有60法郎,工作是从录音中筛掉商业化的有种族歧视和“土”的音乐,选出最具代表性的美利坚合营国民歌。这一个连串由泛美联盟(美洲国家社团的前身)的音乐部主持,西格的岳父此时正值该机关担任领导。
这段工作让他听见了汪洋的歌谣录音,还结识了像“铅肚皮(Lead
贝尔(Bell)y)”等一批民歌星,让她在民歌领域有了坚实的积攒,并且那段经历让皮特坚定了以唱歌为营生的信心。

1952

卡特(Carter) Family签约 维克托(Victor) 唱片,并发行很多盛行单曲。

例如精选集所选的 “Single Girl, Married Girl”等名曲。

20世纪30年间,他们录制了大批的歌曲,其中绝半数以上以单曲的款型发行。A.P.
卡特(Carter)痴迷于英美摇滚乐,由此这么些大概被人忘记了的曲调会在“卡特(卡特)一家人”的唱片中复出。

1948

多名中国风运动份子被列入黑名单

F.B.I.认为多名舞曲运动份子是中共,随后整个娱乐业将她们列入了黑名单:小Lomax,
Burl Ives, Pete Seeger, Josh 惠·特(Wh·it)e , Lee
Hays和此外几位Weavers乐队成员,和其他几位我们一向不介绍到的歌谣运动相关作曲家、中国风艺人。

(当时列入黑名单的大体300多位演艺圈人员,最资深的就是好莱坞十君子。之后的时光里唯有10%左右的艺人后来表演生涯苏醒,其余人基本都转型或者过境了。)

Josh 惠·特(Wh·it)e的面临更不好些。47年就因为亲苏立场被捕入狱。之后就被 FBI
系统性的抹除他的野史印痕,在50年被列入共党份子名单后,他初步感到恐惧和彻底,在拜访了罗斯福(罗斯福)爱妻之后,觉得大势已去(罗斯福内人都自身难保),于是去非美委员会收到评释(testifying),表态自己与共产党无关(其余几位主旨都是不容参与那几个申明的)。

作为罗斯福(罗斯福)的至交,著有名气的人权斗士,他的常见粉丝们不敢相信他会向麦卡锡(McCarthy)主义低头屈服,而许多左翼份子认为他去非美委员会向
FBI 告发了一批共党份子名单以换到自由。所以,乔希(Josh) 惠·特(Wh·it)e
成为了那批艺人中绝无仅有一个被左翼右翼同时封杀的人~~~

下一场50-55年 Josh 惠·特(Wh·it)e
只能去了London,主持一个电台节目传播流行乐和布鲁斯(布鲁斯)。然而在美利坚合众国,他的艺术生涯已经终止了。

小 Lomax
则在名单公布后,不过限制他们身体自由的法案通过前就跑到了北美洲,以哥伦比亚唱片公司的民歌采风项目为由,在北美洲呆到59年。在亚洲期间,他发掘了重重民歌歌唱家,尤其在英帝国,也引领了那里的民歌复兴运动。

Burl
Ives在52年扛不住了,也去非美表现委员会报到了。他日后被扫除黑名单,继续她的表演者事业。可是重打击乐事业基本上就仙逝了。Pete
Seeger等人觉得她叛变了我们。60年代将来,他改唱乡村去了。

Pete
Seeger在49年早已淡出共产党,紧要原由是苏联在战后的当作,让她意识到斯大林和他好好的国共相差甚远。可是之后她如故和国共保持着细致的关联。55年他在非美行为委员会明确表态不会变动自己的归依,就如闻名的好莱坞十君子所做的。不过那多少个时候非美委员会已经势力大减。之后纺织工就复出了。

至于伍·德(Wo·od)y
Guthrie,在40年代末发现患有亨庭顿舞蹈症,那时候早就退出了演艺事业。

私货吐槽已毕,正文开首。

卡特 Family 先河发行唱片

她俩是第一个乡下/重打击乐音乐领域的明星人声组合。他们对蓝草、乡村、南方福音、波普(波普)流行、摇滚和歌谣复兴都有很大的影响。

在1960年间的摇滚乐复兴运动中,卡特(卡特(Carter))家族收集创作的不可胜道歌曲都被广为传播,例如民歌女皇琼·贝兹在他最初的专栏里演唱过《森林野花》(Wildwood
弗劳尔(Flower))、“Little Moses”、“Engine 143”、“Little Darling, Pal of
Mine”和“Gospel Ship”
那么些组合本来是A.P.卡特,他的老婆萨拉,以及弟媳Maybelle的三结合。十几年后,他们的男女们和弟妹的子女们也进入进去,最多时候有8个人。

听着温馨吧,其实 A.P.卡特(Carter) 和 萨拉 36年要么离婚了,然后 39年Sara 嫁给了
A.P.的堂兄弟~~~ 44年乐队解散。

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