出品高管的黑盒子 – The Black Box of Product Management

英文原稿来自:https://medium.com/the-black-box-of-product-management/the-black-box-of-product-management-3feb65db6ddb

【转载】


1、什么是接口测试?

产品经营的黑盒子

当存在的创造受到质询时,产品老板显得很不好过

BY  Brandon
Chu
 
  翻译: Kevin嚼薯片

负有产品经营都经历过被那样提问,就如那是成品COO世界里的三个首要的典礼:

“产品经营到底是做什么样的?”

小编能明白设计师和费用工程师为啥问那样的问题。从她们角度来看,笔者也会有所不解,因为产品经营的工作格外零散,而从未展现出一丢丢法则。

当自家先是次从事产品经营工作时,笔者甚至不知底自家做的正是其平生意。相反,小编是2个老祖宗,并只是发现到自作者只是在“创业”。

此后,当小编去面试行生产品经营的劳作时,这一个面试官告诉本身实在作者在做的正正是成品经营的工作。笔者被招募了。在那几个职务的最初,笔者曾被问过地方那么些被说烂的难点。但本身未有感受被触犯;事实上,作者会感到奇怪,所以自个儿起头去阅读跟产品老总相关的事物。网络上有很多这么的布道:

* 小编不是项目老总,假诺有人有那样的测算,小编会感觉很生气。

* 小编本应当去承担控制是如何和怎么的任务。

* 笔者应该是贰个盼望家,代表用户的响声,把控项目成功的人,之类的。

自个儿把持有的生命力放在此处。在头多少个月,小编周周都会重读《优异的和不佳的成品经营》这本书——我的制品首席营业官领域的圣经。

下一场本人不住宣布产品。极快,我觉着那很有用。

经年累月过后,我起来管理其余产品团队。别的的产品高管会期待笔者去做出一些概念,好让他俩能回答以上的质询。小编会提供一些好的小说以及自己从小到大的经历供各位品尝。

自家今后在Shopify(加拿大电子商务集团)是自家第三个产品有关的剧中人物,作者又3遍发现本身对本人的确在做的事情会议及展览开反思并形启发式。Shopify是多个有确实工程师襄子化的商店,而出于集团层面,却唯有很少的成品经营。全体来看,笔者上家店铺招聘产品首席执行官的百分比是1:拾。在Shopify(就算包含产品组长)也只是接近一:80。

在自己入职第叁3日时,一个工程师问了自笔者“那些标题”。

在此处干活的另1益处是能观测另一种怎么样有效地创设和公告产品的主意。Shopify的工程师和设计师相当有文采、有呼声和有独立性,让投机,学会有效地与他们合营迫使本人改变本身对工作的领会。

也迫使自身找到不该改成的是什么样,并在那一进度中,带动本身去从是怎么上涨到何以。那篇文章不是追究Shopify,也不是追究如何成为叁个卓有成效的产品经营。它是追究产品老总存在的缘故。

接口能够分上边二种
一、系统与系统之间的调用,比如银行会提供接口供电子商务网址调用,只怕说,支付宝会提供接口给Taobao调用

怎么需求产品质量管理理理

出品CEO是商店索要表现的多个指数级增进能力副产品。

  1. 速度:公司须求在二个技术立异速度不断加快的行当中生存下来。

  2. 规模:供销合作社出品、团队团体、用户,都趁机集团频频成长而进一步复杂。

进度一个指数级的力量,因为相比较过去,以往每段时间所爆发的更动更是多。规模也是相仿的,相比较过去,每一种新增功能、各个职员和工人、各样用户,都在让系统变得越来越复杂。

产品经营作为2个地方已经是时下主流软件商店的通识,因为软件平常必要神速发布和规模化。

 

速度

网络改变着软件出品触达买家市镇的秘诀。每年宣布三遍和用盒子包装放在架子上销售的时代已经破灭。在过去的二10年,很多集体都是写代码、安插上线、然后让用户1眨眼之间间到手更新。

软件开发会有最低的入门供给。接近高级的编写制定语言,和能给开发者赋能的风行开源库。于此同时,建立1个产品功效的基本扶助和布局开支已经降到基本为零。

那象征世界上的每三个难点,都或者同时有数百个独立共青团和少先队正在消除中。

从那么些角度来说,速度有两层含义:你能用软件开发为市镇买者带来价值的快慢,以及由于竞争压迫造成商行急需为了生活下去而高速发展。

二、上层服务对下层服务的调用,比如service层会调用DAO层的接口,而应用层又会调用服务层提供的接口,1般会由此劳动中间的调用,比如注册用户时,会先调用用户查询的服务,查看该用户是或不是曾经注册。

规模

5一人以内的创业共青团和少先队很少有产品经营岗位是因为复杂性仍在可控范围内。老总和壹起创办人照旧有能力去协调集团走向和保全创业公司的自由度。

但随着集团发展,并在遵守不断充实、用户不断各类化、团队连连成长的情状下,复杂性就会现出。并且呈指数级拉长。

譬如说,你觉得二十一位的创业团队需求有稍许会议?

商厦层面;可能的议会数量

这几个图呈现了作者们怎么会陷入到指数级增加的定义中。

供销合作社必要解决的标题也变得复杂。随着团队消除的难题的等级越高,他们会同时发生巨额的衍生难点,都亟需获得消除。可是公司不可能缓解全体的难题。面对巨大要化解的题材,能高效地挑选要聚焦的难题点是1个公司的最要紧的策略。

 

混乱的混合物

当您而且思量速度和范围对专营商的熏陶时,很容易得出未有三个能到家思索集团景况的人会促成公司脱轨的概念。最后,承担这么些角色的是COO,但当她们的劳作已经饱和时,还有哪个人能互补那1空手?

而作者辈所要做的接口测试,先要精晓是依照哪一种档次的接口测试,分歧类其他接口测试方法恐怕是不平等的,总体来说,不管是那连串型,我们只要把被测接口当做是服务方,而把大家的测试手段看成是客户方,大家的指标就是,通过大家的测试手段,去申明服务端满意了她宣称提供的效应。

怎么是产品老板

自然,产品是急需某些禁锢的——那一点是很显眼的。为何不直接给各种人去培养和锻炼管理产品的技艺,为何须要雇佣二个一定的角色去做?

狭义的理由是治本3个成品比你想像中更难,须求多年的经历才能胜任。广义的说辞是:

优质的产品开发是那贰个难的

产品经营的基本竞争力是实在地了然产品开发。即如何明确怎样难点亟待化解以及哪些与团队合营去消除难点。

别的经历过五回产品发表的人都知情要撤废条条框框,像下边那样的三个线性的产品开发进度,几乎是二个非常的小概的事务。

问题-市场-商业-设计-开发-销售-配送

正是你把举报回路包蕴在这几个步骤里,去与公司共同通过三个整洁的步调清单去做事的想法是有题指标。它不合乎这些技能火速前进的社会风气。

世界变化太快以至于大家只可以用5个月前的探讨去工作。

自作者觉得现代产品开发是一个跨学科的种类,在一个互联网中贯彻用户的希望。产品经营是在这么些网络中确立联络桥梁的API。

产品开发;一个跨学科系统;

各样节点代表三个正式领域,各种都能够成为2个工作去控制。速度和层面已经变成专营商产品开发品质的一个要害决定因素:有太多须要去探听,唯有那样团队才能有效地付诸产品。

产品开发的历程就是以此系统随着年华演变的进度。

产品开发进度

从问题识别到产品公布的进度中,产品经营都引导着那几个种类,确定保证网络中的各类节点都了解其余环节的快慢,同时用户也愈加期盼精通正在开发的产品是怎么样。

最后,组织规模化会形成几个公司。二个可行的产品开发系统供给协调和集中这个团体来达成集团的愿景。

和谐三个公司来促成公司的愿景。

用作产品开发的API,产品老板通过保障不重复工作来升高公司功效,并共享基础设备来赋能其余团队急速推动。

2、做接口测试的流程1般是什么样的?

产品经营是跨学科的

出品老董费用年时光来进步能承受该系统所需的技艺。那是一种跨学科的、有广度且深度的上学方法。

在自作者的职业生涯中,小编做过那么些:编制程序、界面设计、用户体验探究、金融建立模型、业务发展、支集、文案写作、会计、法律、合同谈判、报告、经营销售、博客、问答、和成品复制。

但本人从未2个是专家级的,在少数方面本身只达到了边界级。我只略知一2充足的学问能使本身作为一个API,但不会去加入太深(用二个很好的措施)。这是成品经营技能集合的精华所在,它让创办人很难精确地询问她们所推动的价值。

产品经营知道各种规程的足足知识来顶住整个产品开发系统。

出品高管的跨学科意识使他们能够以其余语言进行沟通,从而有效地将音信传递到总体公司。

他俩还处于评估整个种类生成影响的特等地方。近来自己和Shopify的主任举办了壹遍谈话,对本身很收益。

“伟大的产品人精晓世界运作情势的更动对记录的公文所发生影响。他们能够实时感知到这种影响。”

— Tobi Lütke

1二分不利。

在3个以速度为王,且呈指数变动的世界里,在走路在此之前高达共同的认识往往是一种浪费想法。团队必要在平日基础上作出重大的决定以保险速度,而那个决策会对在利益相关者之间会生出至关心重视要的交易或顶牛。

促进那么些决定的不是别的,而便是产品CEO的干活。

接口测试的流程其实和功用测试的流水线类似,因为接口测试重视的重中之重目标也是急需表达书,所以,最初的流水生产线正是参与须求探讨,评定审查要求。须要明确以往,开发会依照须求进行接口设计,会现出接口定义,在开发设计进程中,有力量来说,能够提交1些针对设计的提出,升高可测性,针对须要及规划,举办测试布署,测试设计,然后还亟需和配管鲜明测试环境相关的事体。

干什么黑盒会持续存在

差别于工程师和设计师的干活相当简单量化,而很难在长时间内观看到产品经历所发生的股票总值,产品质量管理理理的模糊性也快要持续一段时间。

也许有1天,产品质量管理理理大概会有色金属研讨所究生学位和显著的职业道路,但不是明天。在那在此之前,集团将继承扩充范围,世界将持续变得更快,迟早“大家须要有人来治本那个”。

若果您是一个成品经营,不要在下二回有人挑战你的留存时感觉心痛。拥抱狐疑(终究你是1个PM),对友好的对象有信念。

=

假如您以为那篇小说有价值,请在文章尾部为本身的小说点和打赏。


 

The Black Box of Product Management

PMs get sad when you ask them why they exist

BY    Brandon
Chu

*
*

There is a rite of passage in the product management world, where all
PMs have experienced being asked:

“What does a product manager do, anyway?”

I empathize with designers and engineers for asking this question. In
their shoes, I would be just as skeptical, because a product manager’s
activities are fragmented, and don’t reveal the true discipline beneath.

When I first started in product management, I didn’t even know I was
doing it. Instead, I was a first time founder and thought I was just
“doing startup”.

Later, when I interviewed for a PM job, some much more qualified people
told me that I was, in fact, doing product management. I got the job.
Early into that role, I was asked the infamous question above. I wasn’t
offended; in fact, I was just as curious as them, so I started reading
(and reading) about product management. The internet said many things:

* I wasn’t a project manager, and I should be offended if someone
infers that

* I was supposed to own the what and the why

* I should be a visionary, the voice of the customer, Mr. get shit
done, etc.

I soaked it all in. I re-read Good Product Manager, Bad Product
Manager
my bible of product managementweekly, for the first few months.

And then I shipped, and shipped some more. And pretty soon I felt
useful.

Years into that job, I started managing other product
teams
.
Other PMs were now looking to me to define expectations, so that
they could now respond to questions of why they existed. I offered a
cocktail of the best posts I’d read, and examples of the experiences I’d
had over the years.

I’m currently at Shopify in my third role in product, and again I find
myself rethinking assumptions about what it is I truly do. Shopify is a
true engineering culture, and has very few product managers relative to
the size of the company. For perspective, my last company had 1:10 ratio
of PMs to employees. Shopify (including directors) is closer to 1:80.

An engineer asked me “the question” the first week I was there.

One of the best things about working here has been observing an
alternative approach to how products can be built and shipped
effectively. Shopify engineers and designers are incredibly talented,
opinionated and independent, and learning to effectively work with them
has forced me to change the way I perceive my craft.

It’s also forced me to figure out what shouldn’t change, and in doing
so, push me to abstract away the what in favour of the why. This
post isn’t about Shopify, nor is it about the how to be an effective
product manager.It’s about why product management exists.

在付出形成接口定义之后,就依照必要文书档案及接口定义举办测试用例设计,测试用例设计重点从作业场景,功用,以及尤其测试多少个方面思量。测试用例设计到位后,针对测试用例实行评定审查,然后,如若开发代码部分可测时,即可进入测试了,因为是某些可测,恐怕会采纳到mock方法(mock测试正是在**测试进度**中,对于一些不简单构造也许不不难获取的靶子,用3个虚拟的靶子来创建以便测试的测试方法。)。已有测试代码时,就要开展测试代码的无休止集成了,我们是运用jenkins来开始展览连发集成的

Why Product Management

Product Management is the by-product of two exponential forces being
exerted on a company.

  1. Speed:The company exists in an industry where the rate of
    technological innovation is accelerating

  2. Scale:Growth in the company’s product, organization, and
    customers are creating complexity

Speed is an exponential force because with every period of time, more
change is occurring than in the last. Similarly with scale; every extra
feature, employee, or user is adding more complexity to the system than
the last.

The reason product management as a career has been popularized in
predominantly software companies, is because software is inherently
fast and scalable.

*
*

3、接口测试的数量准备,应该如何是好呢?

Speed

The internet changed how software products were delivered to the market.
Long gone are the days of annual releases and cardboard boxes on
shelves. For the last two decades, teams have been writing code,
deploying it, and giving updates to all their customers instantaneously.

Software development itself has a lowered bar of entry. Approachability
of high level programming languages, and the prevalence of open source
libraries has super charged developers with unprecedented productivity.
At the same time, the infrastructure costs of building a functional
product and deploying it has dropped to basically zero.

This means that every large problem in the world likely has hundreds of
independent teams working to solve it.

In this way,speed has two meanings: both how quickly you can get
something to market with software development, and (critically) how
competition forces companies to go faster to survive.

 

Scale

The reason why sub 50-person startups rarely have product managers is
that the complexity is still manageable. The CEO and co-founders are
still able to coordinate the company towards a focused problem and
unleash the power of a scrappy startup upon it.

But as the company grows, complexity emerges as more features are added,
customers become more diverse, and the team grows. And that complexity
grows exponentially.

For example, how many meetings do you think a 20-person startup can
have?

The answer shows why we suck at conceptualizing the
exponential
.

The problem the company solves grows in complexity as well. As teams
solve high level problems, they spawn hundreds of derivative problems,
all begging to be solved. The catch is the company can’t solve them all.
Faced with hundreds of problems to solve, choosing where to focus
quickly becomes the most important decision a company makes.

A Cocktail of Chaos

When you consider the simultaneous impacts of speed and scale on a
company, it’s easy to conceptualize how things will eventually derail
without someone thinking holistically about the company. Ultimately,
that role is for the CEO, but when they’ve reached their multi-tasking
limits, who else can fill the void?

接口测试的数额准备,能够从上边多少个方面去考虑:
一、要是是只测试二遍的接口,能够应用硬编码的点子准备测试数据,在写测试代码的时候,使用到怎么着数据就写什么数据,为了幸免数据重复,恐怕相比多的会用到自由字符或随意数

Why Product Managers

Sure, products need some oversight – got it. Why not just train
everyone to be able to manage the product, why hire a specific role?

The short answer is that it’s harder than you think to manage a product,
and it takes years of experience to become capable. Here’s the long
answer:

二、能够直接通过调用别的API的法子准备测试数据,那种情景在测试最上层服务的时候比较有用,比如测试团购购买服务,就须求准备要购销的团购数量,购买团购的用户数据,这一年,能够直接调用生产团购的api和浮动用户的api直接生成测试数据

Good product development is hard

The core competency of a product manager is truly understanding product
development. That is, how to identify which problem to solve and how to
work with a team to solve it.

Anyone who’s been through a few launches knows that despite the
textbooks, a linear product development process like the one below is a
fairy tale.

Even if you included feedback loops between the steps, the idea of neat
and tidy sequential steps, where functional teams work together through
a checklist is flawed. It simply does not fit into a world where
technology is progressing exponentially.

The world changes too quickly for us to build on research we had even
three months ago.

I view modern product development as a system of interconnected
disciplines, working in a network, to deliver on a user’s
desire.Product managers are the API that facilitates communication in
this network.

Each node represents a broad bucket of domain expertise, each with
enough depth that people dedicate careers to master them. This is an
important quality of product development in a company where speed and
scale have reached critical mass: there’s too much to know, so only a
team can effectively deliver a product.

The process of product development is how this system moves through
time.

Product managers shepherd this system from problem identification
through to product launch, ensuring that each node in the network is
aware of the progression of the others, and that users increasingly want
what is being developed.

Finally, organizational scale brings with it multiple teams. And an
effective product development system coordinates and focuses those teams
towards the company’s vision.

As the product development APIs, product managers support company wide
efficiency by ensuring no duplication of effort, and sharing
infrastructure to enable other teams to go faster.

4、接口测试怎么统一筹划测试用例呢?

Product managers are multidisciplinary

Product managers spend years to develop the skills required to be
responsible for this system. It’s a multidisciplinary, breadth over
depth approach to learning.

In my career, I’ve done all of: programming, UI design, UX research,
financial modelling, business development, support, copy-writing,
accounting, legal, contract negotiation, reporting, marketing, blog
posts, FAQs, and product copy.

I’ve been an expert in none, and achieved borderline competence in some.
I knew just enough of each to be useful as an API, but never enough to
be dangerous (in a good way). That’s the quintessential quality of a
product manager’s skill set, one that makes it hard for builder types to
grok exactly what value they bring.

PMs know just enough of each discipline to be responsible for the
entire product development system.

A product manager’s multidisciplinary awareness enables them to
communicate in whatever language is necessary to effectively deliver
information across the team.

They’re also in the best position to assess the impact of change across
the system. A recent conversation I had withShopify’s
CEO
, expressed
this pretty succinctly to me.

“Great product people understand how a change in the way the world works
will impact the log files. And they can perceive that impact in real
time.”

— Tobi Lütke[paraphrased]

Exactly right.

In a world where speed is king and the world is changing exponentially,
having time to develop consensus before action is often a luxury. Teams
need critical decisions made on a daily basis in order to maintain
speed, and those decisions have major trade offs and/or conflicting
interests among stakeholders.

Driving those decisions is no one else’s job but the product manager’s.

 

Why the Black Box Will Persist

Whereas the work of engineers and designers are easier quantified,
because it’s difficult to observe a PMs impact over the short run, the
ambiguity around Product Management will remain for some time.

One day, there may be graduate degrees and definite career paths to
product management, but not today. Until then, companies will continue
to scale, the world will continue to get faster, and sooner or later“we
need someone to manage this”
will get proposed.

If you’re a PM, don’t get butt-hurt the next time someone challenges
your existence. Embrace ambiguity (you’re a PM, after all) and have
confidence in your purpose.

自个儿以为接口测试用例的安排性方法其实和效应测试用例的布置艺术是近似的,因为接口是索要满意急需的,而接口测试所依赖的也是须要表达书,可是,因为接口测试毕竟是透过代码去测试代码,所以,为了确定保证覆盖率,大概会使用到单元测试的方法,具体的测试用例设计,参考如下:

 

1.输入参数测试:
针对输入的参数进行测试,也得以说是只要接口参数的不得法进行的测试,确认保证接口对随意档次的输入都做了对应的处理:
输入参数合法,
输入参数违规,
输入参数为空,
输入参数为null,
输入参数超长;

二.成效测试:接口是或不是满意了所提供的功力,也便是是平日情形测试,假若三个接口功用复杂时推荐对接口用例进行协会划分,那样子用例具有更好的可读性和维护性。

3.逻辑测试:逻辑测试严俊讲应为单元测试,单元测试应保持内部逻辑的科学,可单元测试和接口测试界限并不是那么清楚,所以大家也得以从提交的设计文书档案初级中学完成学业生升学考试虑之中逻辑错误的道岔境况和非凡;

四.万分情况测试:
接口完成是还是不是对分外情形都进展了拍卖,接口输入参数即使合法,可是在接口实现中,也会出现非常,因为中间的尤其不自然是输入的数码造成的,而有望是其他逻辑造成的,程序必要对其余的万分都实行拍卖。

 

 

5、接口测试工具有何?

1.Wireshark:用来赢得互连网数据封包,包蕴http,TCP,UDP,等互连网协议包

五、如何抓包查看接口传入参数和重返参数是还是不是科学?

图片 1

 

2.Postman:不仅能够调剂简单的css、html、脚本等简单的网页基本音信,它仍是能够发送差不多全体体系的HTTP请求!Postman在出殡和埋葬网络HTTP请求方面能够说是Chrome插件类产品中的代表出品之1。

图片 2

 

3.HttpRequester:firefox上的一个插件工具,能够如法泡制各个呼吁,入下图,

界面简单清晰,上手简单,也是作者比较欣赏的壹款工具之1

图片 3

 

4.fiddler:史上最强大的app、web接口调节和测试工具,未有之1,不表达!

图片 4

 

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