The Economist 词汇解析(13)

微信:我起收钱啦

本期原文选自The Economist 2016-9-24之Leaders板块The low-rate
world,释义来自牛津高阶七版、搜狗百科等资源。如果你也当上学The Economist,欢迎订阅我之文集The
Economist,一起读书交流。英文修习者可以通过学习文中词汇,然后将商论的官方译文回译成英文,再对照英文原稿进行较,找来差别,以此提高自己的英文水准。

作为第三着支付的片分外巨头有,微信发招可于支付宝要尽早的多,体现收费比较出宝早了一半年,其免费额度为正如支付宝要没有得多(微信就发生1000长的免费额度,支付宝来2万),并且开发宝兑换免体现额度的办法方法为使比微信多有。最近,微信又因信用卡还款收费要导致不满,而当时段时日支付宝不仅没有收款,还以用户与实体店被产“推荐生玩金”活动来继承加用户的粘度。这似乎受人口不胜无知情,有的人竟是发生了,“微信要把用户还到支付宝那边去。”的慨叹。

The low-rate world

They do not naturally crave the limelight【1】. But for the past
decade the attention on central bankers has been
unblinking【2】—and increasingly hostile. During the financial
crisis the Federal Reserve and other central banks were hailed for
their actions: by slashing rates and printing money to buy bonds, they
stopped a shock from becoming a depression. Now their signature
policy, of keeping interest rates low or even negative, is at the
centre of the biggest macroeconomic debate in a generation.

以菜市场,有些摊位只有微信

【1】limelight 公众注意的核心,本意是石灰光(灯)

而,从马上几乎年两非常巨头对出领域斗争的名堂来拘禁,双方似乎是平均秋色。但是于小型商贩与老头群体,在即时半独点,微信是占用较生之优势的。我们在进菜,坐出租车的早晚,有一定之一样片段局还再也赞成被吃客户以微信会,而人们为方便与长辈们沟通,通常都见面教他俩哪些行使微信,大多时候会顺带教他们怎样用微信的开发功能。

【2】unblinking 目不转睛地;blink 眨眼,闪烁

立马多亏得益于微信本身的永恒属于社交类app,因为丁与丁中间最为经常开的行即是关系,而微信又是立极端流行的之社交类app,并且她的开销功能吗相当的普及,只需要开拓一个软件,就可知到位同人口沟通和请商品,何乐而未呢为。

The central bankers say that ultra-loose monetary policy【3】
remains essential to prop up still-weak economies and hit their
inflation targets. The Bank of Japan (BoJ) this week promised to keep
ten-year government bond【4】 yields around zero. On September
21st the Federal Reserve put off a rate rise yet again. In the wake
of【5】
the Brexit vote, the Bank of England has cut its main
policy rate【6】 to 0.25%, the lowest in its 300-year history.

阿里之财经领域

【3】ultra-loose monetary policy 超宽松货币政策

但,社交功能既是微信的优势,也是微信的劣势。相比专业的再小心让经济领域的支付宝,微信支付就显不那么规范了。天生不具备经济方面的基因,其金融体系的构建比从支付宝还是有所欠缺的,除了收费点之外,总是慢人一步,紧紧的和在支付宝后,亦步亦趋。所以现在于诸多会晤冒出大额资金流水的下场景,人们的首选更多之要支付宝。

【4】government bond 政府债券,政府公债

小马哥举行只地铁,腾讯股价虽蹭蹭往上涨

【5】in the wake of 在……之后

微信也理解,想当正面战场同支付宝竞争,还是于勉强的,必须寻找新的切入点,从侧提高微信在开领域的竞争力。这个切入点必须是多元使用效率极高的使用场景,比如因为公交,坐地铁,打车,和停车场支付。于是就出现了马化腾以广州刷微信坐地铁这等同幕。这并无是和以前一样先以微信及购入了地铁票,然后至地铁站取票,然后再因为地铁这样繁杂的流程。而是腾讯与广州地铁集团签,进行公共交通领域深度合作之结果。而以当年9月,马化腾为都在合肥刷微信因公交。

【6】policy rate 政策利率

本来是跟广州地铁合作了

Come Yellen and high water

But a growing chorus of critics frets about【7】 the effects of
the low-rate world—a topsy-turvy【8】 place where savers are
charged a fee, where the yields on a large fraction of rich-world
government debt come with a minus sign, and where central banks matter
more than markets in deciding how capital is allocated. Politicians
have waded in【9】. Donald Trump, the Republican presidential
nominee, has accused Janet Yellen, the Fed’s chairman, of keeping
rates low for political reasons. Wolfgang Schäuble, Germany’s finance
minister, blames the European Central Bank for the rise of Alternative
for Germany, a right-wing party.

假设当时与微信收费而发生啊关系啊?其实收钱平抵与银行往来的手续费就是一个托词,更主要之是尽量的拿资本掣肘在微信钱包中。如果用户频繁之由微信中体现,缴到信用卡欠款,由于即经常至账的原因,微信就不行麻烦用用户是微信中的这一部分股本来进展资本运作,它一直装着一个本中转站的角色,就好于我们网上购物的时段,未接到货时,货物在快递企业手中一样,微信并无可知像银行同样化人们资金的存储仓库,而独自是资产之转账仓库。所以就算必通过收费来约束用户以钱从微信中划走的所作所为。

【7】fret about 担忧,焦虑

2017年9月,坐公交车,不懂得这股价有没发生涨

【8】topsy-turvy 颠倒混乱

为缓解以收费而致使的用户没有,又得尽量的扩张微信在开领域的动状况,所以它从人们的平常出行就类似应用效率极高的使用场景入手,尽可能的加强用户采取微信的频次。我们可见到微信的保有的收款范围都仅仅对:在非购物的图景下,把钱由微信中划有当下同样栽状态。微信想透过我周边的运场景,告诉用户微信可化解在日常生活中几乎拥有的开发问题,大家管钱放在微信里就得了,安全的很,不需整天转来转去的。然而,个人觉得,微信对信用卡还款收费的举动,或许还是过早了点,毕竟微信类似开宝花呗之类的套信用卡功能,还未是那个普及。

【9】wade in/wade in sth 强行参与;wade涉水

             本文仅代表作者观点,别无它意,欢迎指正与评论,望理解。

This is a debate on which both sides get a lot wrong. It is too simple
to say that central bankers are causing the low-rate world; they are
also reacting to it. Real long-term interest rates have been declining
for decades, driven by fundamental factors such as ageing populations
and the integration of savings-rich China into the world economy (see
article). Nor have they been reckless【10】. In most of the rich
world inflation is below the official target. Indeed, in some ways
central banks have not been bold enough. Only now, for example, has
the BoJ explicitly pledged to overshoot【11】 its 2% inflation
target. The Fed still seems anxious to push up rates as soon as it
can.

【10】reckless 鲁莽的,无所顾忌的

【11】overshoot 超过,突破

Yet the evidence is mounting that the distortions caused by the
low-rate world are growing even as the gains are diminishing. The
pension-plan deficits of companies and local governments have
ballooned【12】 because it costs more to honour【13】
future pension promises when interest rates fall (see article). Banks,
which normally make money from the difference between short-term and
long-term rates, struggle when rates are flat or negative. That
impairs their ability to make loans even to the creditworthy.
Unendingly low rates have skewed financial markets, ensuring a big
sell-off【14】 if rates were suddenly to rise. The longer this
goes on, the greater the perils that accumulate.

【12】balloon 激增,膨胀;名词本意是气球

【13】honour 信守(承诺)

【14】sell-off 抛售

To live safely in a low-rate world, it is time to move beyond a
reliance on central banks. Structural reforms to increase underlying
growth rates have a vital role. But their effects materialise only
slowly and economies need succour now. The most urgent priority is to
enlist【15】 fiscal policy. The main tool for fighting
recessions has to shift from central banks to governments.

【15】enlist sth (in sth) 谋取(帮助)

To anyone who remembers the 1960s and 1970s, that idea will seem both
familiar and worrying. Back then governments took it for granted that
it was their responsibility to pep up【16】 demand. The problem
was that politicians were good at cutting taxes and increasing
spending to boost the economy, but hopeless at reversing course when
such a boost was no longer needed. Fiscal stimulus became synonymous
with an ever-bigger state. The task today is to find a form of fiscal
policy that can revive the economy in the bad times without
entrenching government in the good.

【16】pep up demand 提振需求

That means going beyond the standard response to calls for more public
spending: namely, infrastructure investment. To be clear, spending on
productive infrastructure is a good thing. Much of the rich world
could do with new toll roads, railways and airports, and it will never
be cheaper to build them. To manage the risk of
white-elephant【17】 projects, private-sector partners should be
involved from the start. Pension and insurance funds are desperate for
long-lasting assets that will generate the steady income they have
promised to retirees. Specialist pension funds can advise on a
project’s merits, with one eye on【18】 eventually buying the
assets in question.

【17】white-elephant
昂贵而无用底物;白象方便面就开发国外市场的上,就把它的品牌翻译成了white
elephant,结果可想而知

【18】with one eye on sth;have one eye/half eye on sth
做一样码事时冷注意别一样起事

But infrastructure spending is not the best way to prop up weak
demand. Ambitious capital projects cannot be turned on and off to
fine-tune the economy. They are a nightmare to plan, take ages to
deliver and risk becoming bogged down【19】 in politics. To be
effective as a countercyclical tool, fiscal policy must mimic the best
features of modern-day monetary policy, whereby independent central
banks can act immediately to loosen or tighten as circumstances
require.

【19】bog sth/sb down (in sth) 使陷入烂泥,阻碍

Small-government Keynesianism【20】

Politicians will not—and should not—hand over big budget decisions to
technocrats. Yet there are ways to make fiscal policy less politicised
and more responsive. Independent fiscal councils, like Britain’s
Office for Budget Responsibility, can help depoliticise
public-spending decisions, but they do nothing to speed up fiscal
action. For that, more automaticity is needed, binding some spending
to changes in the economic cycle. The duration and generosity of
unemployment benefits could be linked to the overall joblessness rate
in the economy, for example. Sales taxes, income-tax deductions or
tax-free allowances on saving could similarly vary in line with the
state of the economy, using the unemployment rate as the
lodestar【21】.

【20】Keynesianism凯恩斯主义(Keynesian),或如凯恩斯主义经济学(Keynesian
economics),是因凯恩斯的作文《就业、利息以及货币通论》(1936年)的思基础及之经济理论,主张国家采用扩张性的经济政策,通过加需求促进经济增长。(以上释义来自搜狗百科)

【21】188金博宝app苹果lodestar 北极星,指导标准

All this may seem unlikely to happen. Central banks have had to take
on so much responsibility since the financial crisis because
politicians have so far failed to shoulder theirs. But each new twist
on ultra-loose monetary policy has less power and more drawbacks. When
the next downturn【22】 comes, this kind of fiscal ammunition will be
desperately needed. Only a small share of public spending needs to be
affected for fiscal policy to be an effective recession-fighting
weapon. Rather than blaming central bankers for the low-rate world, it
is time for governments to help them.

【22】downturn 衰退

【小结】

列央行并不曾专门渴望受到关注(limelight),但每当过去之十年里,人们对央行官员等连关注(the
attention on central bankers has been
unblinking),而且更加怀有敌意。金融危机期间,美联储和其它央行已削减利率(slashing
rates)、印钱购买债券,从而阻碍了事半功倍萧条(recession)。但今天,保持小利率竟然负利率的策略也遭遇争议。中央首长认为,要想提振仍旧疲软之经济现象(prop
up still-weak economies),仍需要使用过宽松货币政策(ultra-loose monetary
policy)。日本银行本周许诺以十年期当局公债收益率(government bond
yields)保持以零左右。英国脱欧公投之后(in the wake
of),英国央行以那个关键政策利率(policy
rate)降到0.25%,这是300年来的史最低点。但越是多的批评的誉(chorus
of critics)担心(fret
about)低利率环境会导致一个颠倒混乱的(topsy-turvy)世界。政治家们已强行与(wade
in)。央行官员的回复法并非鲁莽(reckless)之举。央行于好几方面还不够大胆(bold
enough)。现在日本央行才确保超越(overshoot)2%的通胀目标。低利率环境会招市场转。当利率降低时,要落实未来养老金发放之许(honour
future pension
promises)就待投入还多资金,这导致企业同地方当局之养老金计划赤字激增(balloon)。如果突然加息,必然引发大规模抛售(sell-off)。谋取财政政策的协助(enlist
fiscal
policy)才是当务之急。上世纪60年代和70年代,政府认为生责任提振需求(pep
up demand)。政治家们擅长通过减税和增加出的点子提振经济(boost the
economy),但不再要这么的激励时,指望他们改弦更张虽然让人大失所望。投资基础设备(infrastructure)是通常的对措施。为了以防产生很而无论是用(white-elephant)的档次,私营部门一开始就该参与其间。在对某项目之长处提出意见时,专门养老成本也答应关怀(with
one eye
on)最终之投资者。基础设备项目要多年之尽,还可能坐政治素使停滞不前(bogged
down)。可以以失业率作为指导规范(lodestar),依据经济状况来调动营业税(sales
taxes)、所得税减免(income-tax deductions)或存免税额(tax-free
allowances on
saving)。当下一样次等经济衰退(downturn)来临时,政治家们许诺负担责任,使财政政策成为强大的兵。现在,政府不承诺拿不如利率世界归咎为央行官员们(blame
central bankers for),而应助她们。

注:本文仅供就学交流之用,不意味着作者观点。

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